Guranga and Murarigupta, Part 2


Jan 05, CANADA (SUN) — A five-part series from 'Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu', edited by Srimad Bhakti Vaibhav Puri Goswami Maharaj, Founder Acharya of the Sri Krishna Chaitanya Mission, Ganjam, Orissa.

Sri Krishna Sankirtan Transported Sri Gauranga's devotees with unspeakable joy. His all embracing doctrine of Divine Love opened the gateway of the spiritual realm to one and all without distinction of caste, creed or community. But the Pandits, students, so-called religionists, elevationists, salvationists and all other unbelievers of the empiric school, maliciously began to spread evil reports against the Lord Gauranga. He took notice of the fact that they were doomed to destruction. He, therefore prescribed a desperate remedy for the cancer that was eating into their very vitals.

Gauranga, finding that the object of His Advent was going to be counteracted by the ungodly character and conduct of the pedantic wranglers of Navadweep, decided to renounce the world. The news of renunciation agonised His mother Sachi and His consort Vishnupriya and His associates Nityananda, Gadadhara, Haridas, Srivas Mukunda and others. He assured His mother that He had still two more Divine forms to be manifested through her help. One wintery morning they actually found that the beloved of hearts had left them. By this renunciation Gauranga teaches that external service of the Supreme Lord Sri Krishna includes the service of all beings in the universe without any exception. When the whole is served, the parts associated with the whole are automatically served.

He crossed the river Ganga, reached Katwa which is 36 Km away from Navadweep and accepted Sannyas from Kesav Bharati. then He assumed transcendental name Sri Krishna Chaitanya (He who awakens Sri Krishna in the hearts of all) After the function, Gauranga set out on His pilgrimage to Vrindavan in quest of Sri Krishna saying "I too shall cross the terrible dark ocean of this world by serving the lotus feet of Mukunda, the Supreme Lord as did the sages of yore." For three days and nights he roamed in a state of trance without food and rest. At last He was induced by Nityananda, His comrade to visit the house of Advaita Acharya at Santipur.

He stayed there for ten days, deeply absorbed in the ecstatic joy arising from the chanting of Holy Name. His mother and His other followers of Navadweep too found an opportunity of looking at the matchless beauty of His Divine face. A sannyasi cannot pass his days in the midst of his former kith and kin. So Sachi Devi desired that her son Nimai might stay at Puri in Orissa. After ten days stay at Santipur, He left for Puri with His six associates, Nityananda, Jagadananda, Mukunda, Gadadhara, Govinda and Brahmananda. Travelling through Atisara, Chatrabhog and Jaleswar, Chaitanya visited Gopinath at Remuna near Balesore.

There He narrated to His followers the incident of Sri Madhavendra Puri which He had heard from His Guru Iswar Puri, Sri Madhavendra was a Vaishnava monk who was the Guru of Iswara Puri. One day after going round the Govardhan Giri, he sat near Govinda Kunda, chanting the Holy Name of Sri Krishna. A boy gave him suddenly a little milk to drink. On enquiry he came to know that the lad was a cow-boy who used to offer food to those devotees who refrained from begging. That very night the same cowboy in dream revealed Himself as Gopala, the uplifter of Govardhana Hill. He also told him how His servitors, being afraid of nonbelievers, had removed Him from the Hill to a grave, and so wanted him to reinstall Him on the hill. Accordingly took Gopala out of the pit with the help of villagers, installed Him on the Govardhan Hill and performed Annakuta (Hillock of consecrated food of various kinds) ceremony next day. Another night Gopala told Madhavendra in a dream that; as he was feeling burning sensation all over His Body through excessive heat, He should procure sandalwood from Nilachala (Puri) to coat Him with its paste so that heat might be subsided. There upon Puri Goswami set out on his eastern journey, reached Santipur where he initiated Advaitacharya.

Thence he proceeded to Orissa and saw Gopinath at Remuna whose beauty threw him into ecstasy. After singing and dancing he enquired into the character of a Bhog (preparations) of Gopinath, and came to learn that Kshira prasad full of twelve earthen pots (inspissated milk) with fine rice and sugar called Amritakeli (cream of nectar) was being offered to the Deity every evening. He thought within himself, that if he could taste a little of that Krishna Prasad, he could offer the same preparation to his Gopala at Govardhan.

But being ashamed of the desire he withdrew to a nearby mango garden where he began to chant the Holy Name. Lord Gopinath concealing a Kshira pot under His skirt, went to the priest and insisted him in his dream to give that Kshira Prasad to Madhavendra Puri, who was under a tree in the mango grove. The priest woke up and took the Kshira to Puri Goswami, and offered it to him. Madhavendra with excessive delight took the Kshira Prasad entering into raptures. For the sake of Madhavendra, Gopinath stole the Kshira and got the name, 'Kshira Chora' since that day. Bowing to Gopinath he at once set out on his journey to Puri. Many men followed him with reverence. Such is the nature of the fame, that it comes as God sent to those who do not hanker after it.

Disliking the public applause, Madhavandra Puri fed away from Remuna but fame followed him all the way. He told the story of Gopala to the attendants of Lord Jagannath and begged them for the sandal for Him. he collected sandal wood and camphor with passports, returned to Remuna where the servitors of the temple offered him Kshira Prasad. At the close of the night he had a dream in which Gopala told him to offer the sandal wood and camphor to Gopinath, as there is no difference between Him and Gopinath. Puri Goswami gave them to the servitors to anoint all the sandal and camphor on Gopinath's person.

Sri Chaitanya said to Nityananda that Madhavendra Puri's Love for his Gopala was fathomless. He thrice blessed him with Darsan in dream. Such is the effect of true love of devotee. Such were his thoughts that he never thought of his own sufferings and snags in the service of his beloved. There only Sri Madhavendra Puri attained Supreme realisation of Divine Love. The whole of it reeled in Lord Chaitanya's mind. So He fell down unconsciously on the ground in a trance out of intense love for Sri Krishna. None but the three Sri Radhika, Madhavendra and Sri Chaitanya relish the true beauty and significance of the sloka, the rarest gem in Transcendental Erotic poetry. Sri Chaitanya rose up and ran up and down in transport of love. His voice choked with and Sattvika symptoms as trembling, perspiration, horripilation, standing still, changing colour, now showing remorse, now grief, now stupor, now pride, now joy, now meekness, were seen manifested on His Body. The servitors of Gopinath were wonder-struck to see Sri Chaitanya's outpourings of Love and served them the Krishna Prasad. Spending the night in chanting Harinam, He left for Cuttack after Mangal Arati next morning.

Sri Chaitanya arrived at Cuttack via. Jaipur and saw the Sakshi Gopala Murti with matchless beauty which threw Him into raptures when He began His ecstatic dance which astonished the servitors of Gopala. Nityananda narrated the legend of Gopala as follows.

Once upon a time two Brahmins of South India set out on a pilgrimage. After visiting all the Shrines of India, they reached Vrindavan, saw the Lord Gopala and stayed there. Being deeply moved with the service of the younger Brahmin throughout the pilgrimage, the older Brahmin promised to give his daughter in marriage to the younger, despite his repeated expressions of disparity in lineage, learning and wealth. Seeing the old Brahmin still determined, the younger Brahmin adjured Gopala to bear witness for him in case the elder might break his promise. Thus Gopala Murti was made the witness to their agreement.

The two Brahmins returned to their homes. The old Brahmin disclosed his promise to his kins folk who threatened to boycott him, if he would utter such words again. One day the younger Brahmin met the elder Brahmin in his abode and asked him to give his daughter in marriage to him. But the old Brahmin, refused to do so. Then the younger Brahmin summoned the village panchayat, and old Brahmin along with his son. He pledged that he could call Gopala from Vrindavan to bear testimony for him; if the old Brahmin would not abide by his promise. To this they all agreed. The old man prayed to Gopala to save him from this critical situation. His son thought that an idol would never come there to bear witness for him.

The younger Brahmin went to Vrindavan and fervently implored Gopala to bear witness for him and save the honour of the two Brahmins. It was not because he was persistent to have the hand of his daughter but because it would be a great pity that the Brahmin was degrading himself to the position of a breaker of promise made before the very Lord. He firmly believed that Gopala was not a Pratima but Vrajendra Nandan Himself. Pleased with the devotional fervour of the younger Brahmin, Gopala followed him on a condition that, if he looked back, he would stop there and cease to follow him further. He assured him that he would be hearing the jingling of His tinkling anklets as a mark that He was actually following him, and that he should offer one kilo of cooked rice daily as Naivedya, for Him. The young Brahmin reaching his village looked behind and Gopala stopped at the same place: He informed the villagers about the arrival of Gopala Murty.

The villagers immediately rushed to see the Divine witness and were overwhelmed with joy when they actually beheld Him giving evidence in favour of the younger Brahmin. The old Brahmin solemnised the wedding of his daughter with the bridegroom with great pomp. Gopala remained there accepting the services of both the Brahmins. A temple was also constructed by the king for Gopala. Thus Gopala became famous under the name 'Sakshi Gopala.'

The king of that province refused to wed his daughter to Purushotham Deva, the then king of Orissa, insulting him for being Lord Jagannath's sweeper. The latter defeated the former in battle and got his daughter, his Manikya Simhasana and Lord Sakshi Gopala as well. As he was a great devotee of Lord Jagannath, he entreated Lord Gopala to remain in his capital only. He took Him to Cuttack and installed Him there. The queen of Purushottama Deva adorned the nose of Gopala with a precious pearl as Gopala demanded her in her dream. The king dedicated the Manikya Simhasana to the Lord Jagannath.

From Cuttack, Sri Chaitanya with His followers passing through Bhubaneswar reached the Bhargabi river, took His bath and keeping His Danda (single monk staff) with Nityananda went for Kapotheswar's Darsan. In the meantime, Nityananda, broke the Danda into three parts and cast them into the river. On return Sri Chaitanya asked for the Danda and being annoyed at this incident, separated Himself from the company of His followers, and reached Puri alone in advance. On entering the lofty Temple of Sri Jagannath, He ran to embrace the Deity out of ecstasy for union after a long separation from His beloved Krishna. He fell into trance and was carried to the house of Pandit Sarvabhauma, who was present on the spot. Nityananda and other devotees subsequently arrived at Puri. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's news was delivered to them by Gopinath Acharya. They all hastened to Sarvabhauma's house and found Him unconsciously lying on the floor. They chanted into His ears Krishna Nama which brought Him to consciousness after six hours of trance. Vasudeva Sarvabhauma a foremost logician was an erudite scholar of Sankara's Monistic School. He was the court Pandit of Pratapa Rudra, the powerful independent king of Orissa.

Pandit Sarvabhauma, due to his empiric knowledge, mistaking Him for an ordinary Monk and youthful novice, expounded to Him the aphorisms of Brahma Sutras as well as the commentaries on them. Sri Chaitanya remained mute and silent as the interpretations of Sarvabhauma were going aside of the mark. When Sarvabhauma noticed the indifference of Sri Chaitanya, he enquired the reasons thereof, where upon Sri Chaitanya explained those aphorisms strictly on the basis of pure theism thus A commentary must elucidate the text, but your exposition is concealing the text clearly. I understand the aphorisms but not your commentary. Sankara's commentary has rejected the primary meaning of the aphorisms and has given a secondary meaning of his own imagination. The primary meaning as given by Sruti can alone carry conviction. According to Sruti conch-shell and cow dung are considered as pure, although they are being bone and dung of animals, naturally unholy. So the meaning of the spiritual truth set forth in Vedanta is plain and self evident. The meaning of Vyasa's aphorisms are clear like the Sun but Sankara enveloped the meaning with the cloud of his imaginary commentary. When the Vedas and Puranas tell us how to discern 'Brahman' who is the Supreme Lord Himself full of all powers, he describes Him as formless and power less. The Srutis, that speak of Him as Impersonal, exclude only His material form but establish His Transcendental form, Attributes, Pastimes and Realm.

From Brahman originates the universe which lives in Him and again merges in Him. The three Attributes of Brahman are that He is the Ablative, Instrumental and Locative in relation to the Universe. Those Attributes particularise Brahman as personal.

When He cast His glance upon Prakriti (External cosmic deluding potency) before creation, the physical mind and eye could not have then existed. Hence, the Transcendental Brahman has spiritual eyes to see and spiritual mind to will. The term Brahman means the perfect Supreme Lord and the scriptures affirm that Sri Krishna is that perfect Supreme Lord. The meaning of the Vedas is too deep for human understanding. So the Purans make the sense all clear. The Srutis deny the Material hands and feet of Brahman but they declare, 'Brahman' sees all, hears prayers, moves swiftly and receives everything. Therefore Sruti asserts Brahman to be personal. How do you call that Brahman, who having the six Divine qualities is supremely blissful as abstract and formless? How can you say that He having the three natural powers, Chit Sakti (internal spiritual potency), Achit Sakti (external cosmic potency) and Jiva Sakti (intermediate or marginal potency lying in between Chit and Achit potencies) is powerless?

Vishnu's Nature, Form etc. are Sat (being), Chit (pure intelligence) and Ananda (bliss), His Supreme Potency assumes three different forms in three aspects in the Sat aspect, the Divine potency is Sandhini, (the energy of expansion of entities) in the Chit aspect it is Samvit (the energy of self enlightening cognition). In the Ananda aspect it is Hladini, (the exhilarating energy). The Chit potency is the Lord's Internal Inseparable power. The Jiva potency is His Tatastha or intermediate or marginal potency. The Maya is the external material deluding potency. But all these three potencies offer devotion to Him in form of Love. The Lord's six qualities are only manifestation of this Chit power. When such is the case how dare you presume to deny His power? God and Jiva differ as one being the Lord of Maya and the other being liable to be enrolled by Maya and yet you affirm that Jiva is one and the same with God. But in Gita, Jiva is recognised as a potency of God but not God Himself.

Where the Upanishads speak of Brahman as One without the second, they mean that the Godhead and the Jiva are identical but not one and the same. There is an eternal relation between Godhead, the Saktiman (Possessor of Sakti) and Jiva, Sakti, which relation is inconceivable to the human understanding that the Shaktiman is simultaneously distinct and non-distinct from the Shaktis i.e. Jiva and Maya are always an intellectual puzzle which is only realisable in the plane of Transcendence by the Jiva. This is inconceivable by the simultaneous distinct and non-distinct of the Jiva from the God-head. The Doctrine of Acintya Bhedabheda is applicable to each and every Upanishad Mantra and is not limited in its application to any or some stray sutras on which Sankara and the other Acharyas of Monistic School, have based their interpretations.

When Vishnu's form is composed of Sat, Chit and Ananda how can you assert that form to be a transformation of Mayik Sattwa Quality? He is to be pitied who denies the Eternal form of Vishnu. Touch not behold not that pasanda (villifier of Vishnu) who is doomed to perdition. The Buddhists are atheists for not respecting the Vedas. But atheism under the garb of belief in the Vedas is worse than Buddhism. Vyasa compiled the aphorisms for the deliverance of Jivas but the impersonalistic interpretation of these aphorisms by the pantheistic or Monistic School is the cause of eternal damnation.

Vishnu is incomprehensible but He manifests in the creation by his inconceivable Chit power. Just as the 'Sparsa Mani' produces gold without itself undergoing any change. Sri Vishnu manifests His potencies in the forms of the entities such as spiritual, material and Jiva without any change in Himself. Objecting to this aphorism as an error of Vedavyasa you have set up the theory of Vivarta by a fanciful interpretation. Vivarta is an error which consists of Jiva's misidentification of his eternal; Cognitive, blissful, infinitesimal and real self with his ever-changing physical and mental bodies. The creation is not unreal but only changeable and perishable.

The sublimest word Pranava (OM) being the Image of God is Supreme Truth. From that Pranava all the Vedas have derived their origin in this world. The words 'Thou art That' etc being casual are applied to a Jiva and imply that thou-art of God and not one and the same with God- head, thus making a glaring distinction between God head and Jiva. But you, without minding the Pranava call these words the Supreme Truth. Thus Sri Chaitanya pointed out hundreds of faults in interpretations of Vedantists of Advaita School.

Sri Chaitanya said, "The Vedas assert only three things viz. (i) about Sri Krishna, (ii) our relation to Him and, (iii) devotional practices and Love as the ultimate end of devotion.

All the rest attributed to Him are born of fancy. The words of the Vedas are self evident and should not be interpreted with the help of imagination. But Sankara was not to blame for it. He merely carried Sri Krishna's will in expounding Brahma Sutras according to his imaginary atheistical philosophy to delude those who are anti devotional in spirit. O Sarvabhauma, the ultimate goal of human life is unalloyed devotion to Sri Krishna. The Supreme Lord's attributes of incomprehensible. For such are the attributes of Sri Krishna that even the unconcerned and passionless self-delighted Atmaramas worship Him with causeless devotion. "Sarvabhauma explained this sloka in nine different ways but Sri Chaitanya ignoring those explanations explained it in eighteen different ways. Sarvabhauma being fully convinced of the Lord's Divinity, fell prostrate before Mahaprabhu and composed then and there a few exquisite hymns in praise of Him:

Next morning Sri Chaitanya having had the Mangal Arati Darsan of Lord Jagannatha, went straight to Sarvabhauma's house: Sarvabhauma awoke repeating Krishna Nama. Then Mahaprasada was given to Him by Sri Chaitanya. Though he had not till then washed his face nor even cleaned his teeth he at once respectfully accepted it after reciting a Sastra quotation. At this Chaitanya was delighted and embraced Sarvabhauma in a transport of joy. He said to Himself, "I have conquered three worlds. I have ascended Vaikuntha. Today all My wishes have been realised because Sarvabhauma has duly respected Mahaprasada. Turning towards Sarvabhauma, He said." Today you have taken refuge in Krishna with all your heart. Sri Krishna has showered His mercy on you without any reserve. Today, He has removed your bondage. And you have torn off the meshes of Maya. Now your heart has been made worthy to gain Sri Krishna, because you have duly respected Mahaprasada in defiance of Vedic rites.

Then Sarvabhauma became a staunch disciple of the Lord, attending to nothing, but His service only. Ever did he meditate, pray and recite the Name of Sri Krishna Chaitanya, the son of Sachi, the fountain head of all Attributes and Glories. The conversion of Sarvabhauma brought the whole of Orissa to the Lotus feet of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Though Sarvabhauma could not at first recognise Roy Ramananda, a great devotee of Sri Krishna and the then Governor of Vidyanagar with head quarters at Rajahmundry, he supplicated him to meet Sri Chaitanya when He would be going along that way to redeem the people of South India. To deliver the people of the south from narrow sectarianism Sri Chaitanya proceeded to south with Kala Krishna Das. He first visited Alalnath at Brahmagiri and came to Srikurma. He gave deliverance to a leper Brahmin named Vasudeva. On the way visiting Varaha Nrisimha at Simhachalam He came to Rajahmundry in 1510 A.D. Crossing the river Godavari He took a bath in Gospada Ghat at Kovvur and met Roy Ramananda the then Governor of Southern State belonging to Gajapati Prataparudra the King of Orissa and had long philosophical discourse with him. At Puri Sarvabhauma entreated Him to meet Ramananda.

The same Ramananda who came with a number of Brahmins to the same Ghat to take ceremonial bath saw Sri Chaitanya sitting and chanting the Holy Name near the Ghat. After bath Ramananda came and prostrated before Him Sri Chaitanya embraced him and both of them being transported with pure love began to perspire, weep, tremble and utter Krishna, Krishna in ecstatic joy. The Brahmin attendants of Ramananda were amazed at the sight and thought, "This Sanyasi must be a holy person where as our Rai Ramananda is only a profound scholar and a great dignitary. See how the embrace is transporting each other with delight? On seeing the strangers Sri Chaitanya checked Himself. Who knows your ways? You are mercy personified you have come here to deliver me. O Saviour of the fallen, the saints ever visit the homes of worldly people for compassing their eternal good. The hearts of the Brahmins and the other attendants numbering a thousand have been melted by your Darsan. All of them are shouting Krishna, Hari shedding tears of joy.

Sri Chaitanya replied, "You are the greatest of devotees. When your sight itself can melt the heart of the scholarly Brahmins, what to speak of the others! I Myself a Mayavadi Sannyasi, am steeped in the Love of Krishna at your touch." While they were praising each other and enjoying the delightful company, a local Vaishnava Brahmin requested the Sannyasi to accept food which Sri Chaitanya accepted. In the evening the two retired to the seclusion of privacy and began to converse on Sadhya (goal) and Sadhana (the means). On His first question Ramananda recited the texts.

"Vishnu gets pleased with those who observe the duties of Varnashrama." Sri Chaitanya said, "Please tell Me little advanced Sadhana." Roy said," the acme of Sadhana is to offer action and the fruits there of to Sri Krishna." Sri Chaitanya rejecting this view even asked Ray to cite more advanced Sadhana. Then Roy said, "The highest devotion acquires one to give up duties enjoined by the Scriptures." This was also when objected to by Sri Chaitanya, Ramananda said, "A Brahman realised soul is self delighted, possesses calm and equitable vision and does not grieve nor long anything mundane. He gradually attains true devotion to Supreme Lord."

Sri Chaitanya not being satisfied with this requested Ramananda to cite more advanced methods. Roy answered, "A pure devotion is the highest form of worship. Sri Chaitanya appreciating the reply requested to cite higher stages. Ramananda said, "Prema Bhakti or Love to Sri Krishna is the highest form of true devotion. Prema Bhakti cannot be attained through good actions in millions of lives." When Sri Chaitanya wanted him to proceed still higher, he said, "Love as that a servant of Sri Krishna is the highest devotion. Love as that of a friend is greater than the previous devotions. The highest devotion is parental affection for the Supreme Lord, "The highest form of devotion is conjugal love for the Supreme Lord Krishna."

Roy continued, "to attain Sri Krishna there are many means and degrees. They are five Rasas. They appear in an ascending order of excellence. The chief characteristic and quality of each Rasa is to attain maturity incorporating in the next. Thus Santa Rasa attains perfection in Dasya in Sakhyam, Sakhya in Vatsalya and all four in Madhura, just as properties of the four elements Ether, Air, Fire, and water, increasing in an ascending order, finally are found in the fifth element, the Earth. Sri Krishna always gives return of our worship exactly in the form in which it is offered. But He cannot repay the offer of Prema of the Gopis. So He remains a debtor to their Love." After listening these with rapture Sri Chaitanya remarked." this indeed is the extreme point of devotion, please tell Me if anything is beyond the extreme point of devotion, Please tell Me if anything is beyond this. Filled with astonishment Ramananda said that he did not know anything beyond that and if there was anybody on the earth who could explain beyond this he would pay homage to him with sublimation. He also said about all kinds of prema and added Srimati Radha's Love for Sri Krishna is reputed as the highest and the ever increasing one". Sri Chaitanya was pleased to hear the praise of Radhika from Ramananda Roy. He said," I am delighted to hear your sermon. A wonderful stream of nectar is flowing from your lips." He accepted Madhura Rasa as the highest form of Devotion.

Ramananda described the real form of Sri Krishna and Srimati Radhika and the features of Rasa and Prema. At last he said that Sri Radha-Krishna Leela can only be realised by submitting completely to the sakhis, the dearest female attendants of Sri Radha-Krishna in their secret bower. Sri Chaitanya gave the world a number of valuable instructions in the form of a dialogue between Himself and Rai Ramananda.

Ramananda replied several other questions put by Sri Chaitanya and the salient points are as follows (1) Loving devotion to Sri Krishna is the highest knowledge. (2) The highest glory of a Jiva is to be reputed as the true devotee of Sri Krishna. (3) He is the wealthiest who has love for Sri Krishna (4) No sorrow is greater than the separation from a Krishna devotee, (S) The foremost of the liberated is one who loves Sri Krishna wholeheartedly. (6) That which speaks of the transcendental amorous sports of Sri Radha Krishna is the most eternal natural song of the Jiva. (7) There is higher good than the association with a Sri Krishna devotee, (8) The only things to be remembered are the names, form attributes, associates and amorous sports of Sri Radha Krishna, (9) The Supreme object of meditation is the Lotus feet of Sri Radha-Krishna, (10) It is the glorious land of Vrindavan where one should live, leaving all behind. (11) The love sports of Sri Radha Krishna are the sweetest and the most relishing to the ears to hear, (12) The highest object of worship is the Holy name of most adorable Divine couple, Sri Radha Krishna (13) The Salvationists attain the bodies of inert beings, such as stones etc., and the elevationists attain celestial bodies in heaven.

Sri Chaitanya spent ten days happily with Ramananda hearing the sweet discourses about Krishna. Then He showed him His real form in which were blended into one the Rasa Raja (Krishna) and Maha Bhava (the Supreme emotions). Sri Chaitanya then went to Mangalagiri, Ahobilam Tirupati, Sri Sailam, Kanchipuram, Sri Rangam, Madhura, Kumbhakonam, Tanjavuru, Varkala, Trivandrum, Rameswaram and visited many other shrines in South India.

Sri Chaitanya stayed for four months (caturmasya) at Srirangam in the house of Venkata Bhatta, a Vaishnava house holder. His discourse on the fundamental principles of Rasa in Srimad Bhagavatam converted the whole family of Venkata Bhatta from the worship of Lakshmi Narayana into that of Sri Radha Krishna. Though both Narayana and Krishna in essence are one and the same in of Love Krishna excels Narayana. Let it be remembered here that Venkata Bhatta's son Gopala Bhatta, the disciple of his uncle Sri Prabodhananda Sarasvati was one of the six Goswamis of Vrindavan.

Then Sri Chaitanya visited Sringeri, Udupi, Gokarna and other shrines in western coast. At Udipi, by a learned controversy with the head of Madhwa Math, Sri Raghu Varya Tritha. He established that the unalloyed devotion to the Absolute Person, Sri Krishna, is the means as well as the end of all spiritual or devotional activities of all human beings. He discarded futility of Karmamisra-Bhakti as means in the Madhva cult. During His South India travel, Sri Chaitanya procured two most precious works. (1) Brahma Samhita V Chapter (a conclusive treatise on the ontology of the highest excellence of Sri Krishna, His Realm and pastimes) from the temple of Adikesava at Tiruvattner and (2) Krishna Karnamrita (an intensely spiritual and transcendental Amorous lyric on the Name Form, Attributes and Deeds of Sri Krishna) from the banks of Krishna Veni. Wherever Sri Chaitanya went, He preached the Super excellence of Sri Krishna Nama over all other forms of devotion. He diverted the Buddhists, the Jains, the Mayavadis (Monists) the Smartas (Elevationists) to the path of Bhakti, or unalloyed devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna.


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