Sri Mundaka Upanishad

BY: SUN STAFF

Lord Visnu and Laksmi on Garuda
Indian Miniature, 18th c.


Nov 16, CANADA (SUN) — A series of three Upanishads from Srila Vedavyasa, translated by Kusakratha dasa.


Sri Mundaka Upanishad

First Mundaka - First Khanda

Invocation

om bhadram karnebhih srinuyama deva bhadram pasyemakshibhir yajatrah. sthirair angais tushtuvams tanubhir vyasema deva-hitam yadayuh. om svasti na indro vriddha-sravah svasti nah pusha visvadevah. svasti nas tarkshyo arishtanemih svasti no brihaspatir dadhatu. om santih santih santih.

Om. O Supreme Personality of Godhead, may we hear auspiciousness with our ears. May we see auspiciousness with our eyes. May we perform yajnas with steady limbs. May we offer prayers. May we spend our lives employing these bodies in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Om. May the glorious Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme monarch, grant auspiciousness to us. May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the glorious Deity of all the worlds grant auspiciousness to us. May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who holds the Sudarsana-cakra and rides on Garuda, grant auspiciousness to us. May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme master, grant auspiciousness to us. Om. Peace. Peace. Peace.

Text 1

om brahma devanam prathamam sambabhuva visvasya karta bhuvanasya gopta. sa brahma-vidyam sarva-vidya-pratishtham atharvaya jyeshtha-putraya praha.

Brahma, who is the first demigod, the creator of the universe, and the protector of the worlds, spoke knowledge of the Supreme, the first of all kinds of knowledge, to his eldest son, Atharva.

Text 2

atharvane yam pravadeta brahmatharva tam purovacangire brahma-vidyam. sa bharadvajaya satyavahaya praha. bharadvajo 'ngirase paravaram.

The same knowledge of the Supreme that Brahma told Atharva in ancient times Atharva told Angira. Then Angira told it to Satayvaha Bharadvaja, and Bharadvaja told it to Angira Muni. In this way it was passed down through the disciplic succession.

Text 3

saunako ha vai maha-salo 'ngirasam vidhi-vad upasannah papraccha kasmin nu bhagavo vijnate sarvam idam vij{.sy 241}atam bhavatiti.

Noble-hearted Saunaka Muni approached Angira Muni and asked: O glorious one, what is the thing that, when known, makes everything else known also?

Text 4

tasmai sa hovaca. dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma yad brahma-vido vadati para caivapara ca.

Angira Muni said to him: The who know the Supreme declare that there are two kinds of knowledge: 1. superior knowledge and 2. inferior knowledge.

Text 5

tatrapara rig-vedo yajur-vedah sama-vedo 'tharva-vedah siksha kalpo vyakaranam niruktam chando jyotisham iti. atha para yaya tad aksharam adhigamyate.

Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda, phonetics, ritual, grammar, etymology, meter, and astronomy are all inferior knowledge. Superior knowledge is what brings one to the imperishable Supreme.

Text 6

yat tad adresyam agrahyam agotram avarnam acakshuh-srotram tad apani-padam nityam vibhum sarva-gatam su-sukshmam tad avyayam yad bhuta-yonim paripasyanti dhirah.

The wise gaze on the Supreme, who cannot be seen or grasped or described, who has no eyes, ears, hands, or feet, who is eternal, all-powerful, all-pervading, very subtle, and imperishable, and who is the creator of all.

Text 7

yathornanabhih srijate grihnate ca yatha prithvyam oshadhayah sambhavanti. yatha satah purushat kesa-lomani tathaksharat sambhavantiha visvam.

As a spider creates and then withdraws a web, as plants sprout from the ground, and as hairs grow, so the material universe has come from the eternal Supreme Person.

Text 8

tapasa ciyate brahma tato 'nnam abhijayate annat prano manah satyam lokah karmasu camritam

By austerity one attains the Supreme. From the Supreme food is manifested. From food comes life, thought, existence, and the many worlds. By acting in the worlds one may attain immortality.

Text 9

yah sarva-jnah sarva-vid yasya jnanamayam tapah tasmad etad brahma nama rupam annam ca jayate

The Supreme knows everything. He knows everything. From Him come austerity and transcendental knowledge. From comes food. From Him comes the impersonal feature that is called Brahman.


First Mundaka - Second Khanda

Text 1

tad etat satyam mantreshu karmani kavayo yany apasyams tani tretayam bahudha santatani tany acaratha niyatam satya-kama esha vah panthah sukritasya loke

The Supreme is eternal and real. The rites that the great mystics saw in mantras are recorded in the three Vedas. Desiring the Supreme, you should perform those rites. That is the path of piety in this world.

Text 2

yada lelayate hy arcih samiddhe havya-vahane tadajya-bhagavantarenahutih pratipadayet sraddhaya hutam

When the sacrificial fire is kindled one should faithfully offer an oblation of ghee.

Text 3

yasyagni-hotram adarsam apaurnamasam acaturmasyam anagrayanam atithi-varjitam ca ahutam avaisvadevam avidhina hutam asaptamams tasya lokan hinasti

He who performs agnihotra-yajnas but does not follow other rites, like darsa, paurnamasa, caturmasya, and agrayana, does not show hospitality to guests, does not worship the Visvadevas, and does not offer yajnas properly, does not attain the seven higher worlds.

Text 4

kali karali ca manojava ca su-lohita ya ca su-dhumra-varna sphulingini visva-ruci ca devi lelayamana iti sapta jihvah

The seven tongues of the sacrifical fire are named: 1. Kali, 2. Karali, 3. Manojava, 4. Sulohita, 5. Sudhumra-varna, 6. Sphulingini, and 7. Visva-ruci.

Text 5

eteshu yas carate bhrajamaneshu yatha-kalam cahutayo hy adadayan tan nayanty etah suryasya rasmayo yatra devanam patir eko 'dhivasah

A person who at the right times properly performs yajnas is carried by the sun's rays to the abode the of demigods' master.

Text 6

ehy ehi tam ahutayah su-varcasah suryasya rasmibhir yajamanam vahanti priyam vacam abhivadantyo 'rcayantya eshah vah punyam sukrito brahma-lokah

Saying, "Come! Come!" and speaking sweet words, the past yajnas carry the yajnas' performer by the brilliant sun's rays to the world of Brahma.

Text 7

plava hy ete adridha yajna-rupa ashtadasoktam avaram yeshu karma etac chreyo yo 'bhinandanti mudha jara-mrityum te punar evapi yanti

The eighteen kinds of yajnas are rickety boats to cross the ocean of birth and death. Only fools praise them, fools who attain birth and old age again and again.

Text 8

avidyayam antare vartamanah svayam dhirah panditam manyamanah janghanyamanah pariyanti mudha andhenaiva niyamanah yathandhah

Such persons are fools, although they think themselves very wise. They are like blind men following a blind leader.

Text 9

avidyayam bahudha vartmana vayam kritartha ity abhimanyanti balah yat karmino na pravedayanti ragat tenaturah kshina-lokas cyavante

These childish fools think, "Now we have attained our goals". Passionate and materialistic, they do not understand the truth. When their good karma is exhausted they fall down into an inauspicious life.

Text 10

ishta-purtam manyamana varishtham nanyac-chreyo vedayante pramudhah nakasya prishthe te sukrite 'nubhu- tvemam lokam hinataram va visanti

These fools think yajnas and charity the best of all deeds. They think nothing is better than them. After enjoying the fruits of their pious deeds in the world of the demigods, they fall down to the earth, or to a world lower still.

Text 11

tapah-sraddhe ye hy apavasanty aranye santa vidvamso bhaikshya-caryam carantah surya-dvarena te virajah prayanti yatramritah sa purusho hy avyayatma

Faithful, austere, renounced, and wise transcendentalists stay in the forest and live by begging alms. Free of matter they pass through the sun's gate and enter the world of the eternal and unchanging Supreme Person.

Text 12

parikshya lokan karma-citan brahmano nirveda-mayannasty akritah kritena tad-vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet samit-panih srotriyam brahma-nishtham

Seeing the true nature of the higher worlds attained by pious karma, a brahmana does not desire them. To learn transcendental subject matter, one must approach the spiritual master. In doing so he should carry fuel to burn in sacrifice. The symptom of such a spiritual master is that he is expert in understanding the Vedic conclusion, and therefore he constantly engages in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.*

Text 13

tasmai sa vidvan upasannaya samyak prasanta-cittaya samanvitaya yenaksharam purusham veda satyam provaca tam tattvato brahma-vidyam

To the peaceful-hearted person who thus approaches him, the wise spiritual master teaches the science of the eternal Supreme Person.


Second Mundaka - First Khanda

Text 1

tat etat satyam yatha su-diptat pavakad visphulingah sahasrasah prabhavante sa-rupah tathaksharad vividhah saumya bhavah prajayante tatra caivapi yanti

The Supreme is real and eternal. As many thousands of sparks come from a blazing fire, so many different living entities are manifested from the imperishable Supreme and then again go to Him.

Text 2

divyo hy amurtah purushah sa bahyabhyantaro hy ajah aprano hy amanah subhro hy aksharat paratah parah

The Supreme is a person. He has no material form. He is within and without. He is unborn. He has neither material breath nor material mind. He is handsome and glorious. He is superior to the impersonal Brahman.

Text 3

etasmaj jayate prano manah sarvendriyani ca kham vayur jyotir apah prithivi visvasya dharini

From Him are born life, mind, all senses, ether, air, fire, water, and earth, the resting place of the worlds.

Text 4

agnir murdha cakshushi candra-suryau disah srotre vag vivritas ca vedah vayuh prano hridayam visvam asya padbhyam prithivi hy esha sarva-bhutantaratma

Fire is His head. The sun and moon are His eyes. The directions are His ears. The Vedas are His words. Air is His breath. The world is His heart. From His feet the earth has come. He is present in the hearts of all living beings.

Text 5

tasmad agnih samidho yasya suryah somat parjanya oshadhayah prithivyam puman retah sincati yoshitayam bahvih prajah purushat samprasutah

From Him comes fire. From fire comes the sun. From the sun comes the moon. From the moon comes rain. From rain come crops on the earth. Because of crops males impregnate females and many offspring are born. Thus everything is manifested from the Supreme Person.

Text 6

tasmad ricah sama yajumsi diksha yajnas ca sarve kratavo dakshinas ca samvatsaras ca yajamanas ca lokah somo yatra pavate yatra suryah

From Him come the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, diksha, yajnas, kratus. dakshina, the year, the performer of yajnas, and the worlds of the moon and the sun.

Text 7

tasmac ca deva bahudha samprasutah sadhya manushyah pasavo vayamsi pranapanau vrihi-yavau tapas ca sraddha satyam brahmacaryam vidhis ca

From Him are born the many demigods, sadhyas, human beings, animals, the ages of life, the incoming and outgoing breaths, rice, barley, austerity, faith, truthfulness, celibacy, and the rules of worship.

Text 8

sapta pranah prabhavanti tasmat saptarcishah samidhah sapta homah sapteme loka yeshu caranti prana guhasaya nihitah sapta sapta

From Him come the seven life-breaths, the seven flames, the seven homas, the seven worlds, and the forty-nine life-forces hidden in the heart.

Text 9

atah samudra girayas ca sarve 'smat syandante sindhavah sarva-rupah atas ca sarva oshadhayo rasas ca yenaisha bhutais tishthate hy antaratma

From Him come all oceans, mountains, rivers, plants, and tastes. He is the Supersoul in the hearts of all living entities.

Text 10

purusha evedam visvam karma tapo brahma paramamritam etad yo veda nihitam guhayam so 'vidya-granthim vikiratiha saumya

The Supreme Person is this entire universe. He is austerity and He is karma. He is the impersonal Brahman. He is full of nectar. O gentle one, one who knows that the Supreme Person stays in his heart cuts the knot of ignorance.


Second Mundaka - Second Khanda

Text 1

avih sannihitam guhacaran nama mahat padam atraitat samarpitam ejat pranat nimishac ca yad etat janatha sad-asad-varenyam param vijnanat yad varishtham prajanam

The Supreme Person stays in the heart. He is the final resort for all who move, breathe, or wink. Please know that He is the best of the high and the low, better than mere knowledge, the best of all who live.

Text 2

yad arcimat yad anubhyo 'nu ca yasmil loka nihita lokinas ca tad etad aksharam brahma sa pranas tad u van manah tad etat satyam tad amritam tad veddhavyam somya viddhi

The Supreme Person is effulgent. He is smaller than the smallest. All the worlds and all living entities rest within Him. He is the imperishable Brahman effulgence. He is life, words, and mind. He is the truth. O gentle one, know that He is immortal and full of nectar.

Text 3

dhanur grihitvaupanishadam mahastram saram hy upasa-nisitam sandadhita ayamya tad bhava-gatena cetasa lakshyam tad evaksharam somya viddhi

O gentle one, withdraw the senses from all else, take up the bow of the Upanishads, place in it the sharp arrow of devotional service, and with a heart filled with love, aim at the immortal Supreme Person.

Text 4

pranavo dhanuh saro hy atma brahma tal lakshyam ucyate apramattena veddhavyam saravat tan-mayo bhavet

Om is the bow. The self is the arrow. The Supreme Person is the target. A sober person should make himself like an arrow.

Text 5

yasmin dyauh prithivi cantariksham otam manah saha pran ais ca sarvaih tam evaikam janatha atmanam anya vaco vimuncatha amritasyaisha setuh

In Him rest the heavens, the earth, space, mind, and life. Everything is woven on Him. Know that He is the all-pervading Supersoul. Give up talking of anyone else. He is the bridge to immortality.

Text 6

ara iva ratha-nabho samhate yatra nadyah sa esho 'ntas carate bahudha jayamanah om ity evam dhyayatha atmanam svasti vah paraya tamasah parastat

The Supersoul stays in the living entities' hearts, where the arteries converge like spokes in a wheel. Chant Om and meditate on Him as the Supersoul. Then you will attain auspiciousness. You will attain the Supreme Lord, who is beyond the darkness of matter.

Text 7

yah sarva-jnah sarva-vid yasyaisha mahima bhuvi divye brahma-pure hy esha vyomny atma pratishthitah

The Supreme Person knows everything. He knows everything. His glory is manifest in this world. He is the Supreme Lord who stays in the spiritual world.

Text 8

mano-mayah pran a-sarira-neta pratishthito 'nne hridayam sannidhaya tad vijnanena paripasyanti dhira ananda-rupam amritam yad vibhati

He stays in the mind. He is the controller of life and body. He stays in food and He stays in the heart. Knowing this, the wise gaze on Him, the eternal Lord whose form is full of bliss and nectar.

Text 9

bhidyate hridaya-granthis chidyante sarva-samsayah kshiyante casya karmani tasmin drishte paravare

The knot in the heart is pierced, and all misgivings are cut to pieces. The chain of fruitive actions is terminated when one sees the Supreme Person.*

Text 10

hiranamaye pare kose virajam brahma nishkalam tac chubhram jyotisam jyotis tad yad atma-vido viduh

In the spiritual realm, beyond the material covering, is the unlimited Brahman effulgence, which is free from material contamination. That effulgent white light is understood by the transcendentalists to be the light of all lights.*

Text 11

na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam nema vidyuto bhanti kuto 'yam agnih tam eva bhantam anubhati sarvam tasya bhasa sarvam idam vibhati

In that realm there is no need of sunshine, moonshine, fire, or electricity for illumination. Indeed, whatever illumination appears in the material world is only a reflection of that supreme illumination.*

Text 12

brahmaivedam amritam purastad brahma pascad brahma dakshinatas cottarena adhas cordhvam ca prasritam brahmaivedam visvam idam varishtham

That Brahman is in front and in back, the north, south, east, and west, and also overhead and below. In other words, that supreme Brahman effulgence spreads throughout both the material and spiritual skies.*


Third Mundaka - First Khanda

Text 1

dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vriksham praishasvajate tayor anyah pippalam svadv atty anasnann anyo 'bhicakasiti

In the individual spirit soul and the Supersoul, Supreme Personality of Godhead, are like two friendly birds sitting on the same tree. One of the birds (the individual atomic soul) is eating the fruit of the tree (the sense gratification afforded by the material body), and the other bird (the Supersoul) is not trying to eat these fruits, but is simply watching His friend.*

Text 2

samane vrikshe purusho nimagno 'nisaya socati muhyamanah jushtam yada pasyati anyam isam asya mahimanam iti vita-sokah

Although the two birds are on the same tree, the eating bird is fully engrossed with anxiety and moroseness as the enjoyer of the fruits of the tree. But if in some way or other he turns his face to his friend who is the Lord, and knows His glories, at once the suffering bird becomes free of all anxieties.*

Text 3

yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusham brahma-yonim tada vidvan punya-pape vidhuya niranjanah paramam samyam upaiti

One who sees the golden colored Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord, the supreme actor, who is the source of the Supreme Brahman, is liberated.* Such a person becomes wise. He becomes free of both pious and sinful karmic reactions. He becomes pure. He attains a spiritual form like that of the Lord Himself.

Text 4

prano hy esa yah sarva-bhutair vibhati vijanan vidvan bhavate nati-vadi atma-krida atma-ratih kriyavan esha brahma-vidam varishthah

The Supreme Person is the life of all that live. One who knows Him is not eager to talk of other things. Such a person loves the Lord, always remembers the Lord's pastimes, and is active in the Lord's service. He is the best of transcendentalists.

Text 5

satyena labhyas tapasa hy esha atma samyag-jnanena brahmacaryena nityam antah-sarire jyotirmayo hi subhro yam pasyanti yatayah kshina-doshah

The Supreme Person is attained by truthfulness, austerity, right knowledge, and celibacy. Free from sin, the renounced devotees always see the glorious and effulgent Lord manifest in their hearts.

Text 6

satyam eva jayate nanritam satyena pantha vitato deva-yanah yenakramanty rishayo hy apta-kama yatra tat satyasya paramam nidhanam

By following the truth one conquers. By following a lie one does not. The path of truth leads to the Supreme Lord. Following that path, the sages attained all their desires and entered the transcendental world of He who is the Supreme Truth.

Text 7

brihac ca tad divyam acintya-rupam sukshmac ca tat sukshmataram vibhati durat su-dure tad ihantike ca pasyatsv ihaiva nihitam guhayam

The Supreme Person is glorious and transcendent. His form is beyond conception. He is larger than the largest and smaller than the smallest. He is very far away. Still, the wise see Him hidden in their hearts.

Text 8

na cakshusha grihyate napi vaca nanyair devais tapasa karmana va jnana-prasadena visuddha-sattvas tatas tu tam pasyate nishkalam dhyayamanah

The Supreme Person cannot be seen with material eyes or described with material words. He is not attained by austerity, pious deeds or demigod worship. Only when, by His mercy, one becomes wise and pure in heart, can one see the supremely pure Lord in a trance of meditation.

Text 9

eso 'nur atma cetasa veditavyo yasmin pranah pancadha samvivesa pranais cittam sarvam otam prajanam yasmin visuddhe vibhavaty esha atma

The soul is atomic in size and can be perceived by perfect intelligence. The atomic soul is floating in five kinds of air (prana, apana, vyana, samana, and udana), is situated within the heart, and spreads it influence all over the body of the embodied living entities. When the soul is purified of the contamination of the five kinds of material air, its spiritual influence is exhibited.*

Text 10

yam yam lokam manasa samvibhati visuddha-sattvah kamayate yams ca kaman tam tam lokam jayate tams ca kaman tasmad atma-jnam hy arcayed bhuti-kamah

A person who is pure in heart attains whatever he desires. He enters whatever planet his heart desires. Therefore one who desires what is truly good in life should worship an advanced transcendentalist who knows the truth of the Supreme.


Third Mundaka - Second Khanda

Text 1

sa vedaitat paramam brahma-dhama yatra visvam nihitam bhati subhram upasate purusham ye hy akamas te subhram etad ativartanti dhirah

An enlightened transcendentalist knows the Supreme Person, in whom the impersonal Brahman and the material worlds rest. They who, free of material desires, worship the Supreme Person, escape the repetition of birth and death.

Text 2

kaman yah kamayate manyamanah sa kamabhir jayate tatra tatra paryapta-kamasya kritatmanas tu ihaiva sarve praviliyanti kamah

A person who desires material happiness is born again so he may again struggle to fulfill his desires. An advanced transcendentalist is already satisfied. His material desires have all vanished.

Text 3

nayam atma pravacanena labhyo na medhaya na bahuna srutena yam evaisha vrinute tena labhyas tasyaisha atma vivrinute tanum svam

The Supreme Lord is not obtained by expert explanations, by vast intelligence, or even by much hearing. He is obtained only by one whom He Himself chooses. To such a person, He manifests His own form.*

Text 4

nayam atma bala-hinena labhyo na ca pramodat tapasa vapy alingat etair upayair yatate yas tu vidvan tasyaisha atma visate brahma-dhama

The Supreme Lord is not obtained by a person who has no spiritual strength, nor by one foolishly engaged in improper renunciation and detachment. A wise person engaged in proper renunciation and detachment attains the Lord. Indeed, he enters the Lord's abode.

Text 5

samprapyainam rishayo jnana-triptah kritatmano vita-ragah prasantah te sarvagam sarvatah prapya dhira yuktatmanah sarvam evavisanti

The wise sages have attained the Supreme Lord. Peaceful, free from material desires, happy in transcendental knowledge, and seeing the all-pervading Lord everywhere, they engage in devotional service. At the end they enter the Lord's transcendental abode.

Text 6

vedanta-vijnana-su-niscitarthah sannyasa-yogad yatayah suddha-sattvah te brahma-lokeshu paranta-kale paramritah parimucyanti sarve

They who are renounced, pure in heart, and wise with the conclusions of the Vedas, attain liberation and become immortal. They stay in the spiritual worlds for eternity.

Text 7

gatah kalah pancadasa pratishtha devas ca sarve pratidevatasu karmani vijnanamayas ca atma pare 'vyaye sarva eki-bhavanti

Then the fifteen phases of existence and all the senses enter the demigods that are their origins. Then the soul is freed from his past karma. Then, filled with transcendental knowledge, the soul meets the immortal Supreme Person.

Text 8

yatha nadyah syandamanah samudre astam gacchanti nama-rupe vihaya tatha vidvan nama-rupad vimuktah parat param purusham upaiti divyam

As rivers abandon their names and forms and meet with the ocean, so the wise transcendentalist abandons his material name and form and meets the glorious Supreme Person.

Text 9

sa yo ha vai tat paramam brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati nasyabrahma-vit kule bhavati tarati sokam tarati papmanam guha-granthibhyo vimukto 'mrito bhavati

One who knows the Supreme Person attains a spiritual form like His. No atheist will take birth in that devotee's family. He crosses beyond grief. He crosses beyond sin. He cuts the knots in the heart. He becomes immortal.

Text 10

tad etad ricabhyuktam kriyavantah srotriya brahma-nishthah svayam juhvate ekarshim sraddhayantah tesham evaitam brahma-vidyam vadeta siro-vratam vidhi-vad yais tu cirnam

In the Vedic hymns it is said:

To they who are learned, active in devotional service, have faith in the Supreme Lord and the spiritual master, are surrendered to the spiritual master, and have thus fulfilled the best of vows, this knowledge of the Supreme Person should be taught.

Text 11

tad etat satyam rishir angirah purovaca naitad acirna-vrato 'dhite namah parama-rishibhyah namah parama-rishibhyah

This was the truth spoken by the sage Angira. One who has not followed spiritual vows should not study this truth. Obeisances to the great sages. Obeisances to the great sages.



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