The Vedic Fathers of Geology, Part 8


Northern Midnight
Nicholas Roerich, 1923

Sep 04, 2016 — CANADA (SUN) — A serial presentation on Vedic discoveries in Geology, from the book by Narayan Bhavanrao Pavgee.

Indra, the Lord of the whole Universe (Rig-Veda I, 101.5), had, first and before all, procured water and light [1] in the region of the Seven Rivers (ante pp. 51-57), for his worshippers -- the Brahmans [2] (Rig-Veda I, 101.5), who were pre-eminently the Sacrifice-loving Aryans, our Primitive ancestors. As the verse is very important, I herein below give it in full, with Griffith's translation:

    [Sanskrit sloka omitted] (Rig-Veda I, 101.5).

    "He, who is the Lord of all the world that mores and breathes, who for the Brahman, first, before all, found the Cows;

    "Indra who east the Dasyus down beneath his feet, him girt by Maruts we invoke to be our friend."

Here, Dasyus are evidently the Vritra-Serpents, [3] who having held off waters in the clouds, were hurled down on the Earth, and crushed beneath his feet by Indra, and let the waters flow for the Brahman worshippers, for the first time, and before all.

But, more than this, there is yet a further distinct statement that the rain was created and the showers were made (Rig-Veda IV, 26.2 ) only for the sake of the Sacrifice-loving mortals, and these certainly were our Primitive Aryans, the ancestors of our Rig-Vedic fore-fathers. And above all, as if to signify his special favour to the Sacrifice-loving Aryans, -- our Primitive ancestors -- and to make his own seal in token of approval, Indra had also given land to our Primitive Ancestors.

    (Rig-Veda IV, 26.2)
    "I have bestowed the earth upon the Arya, and rain upon the man who brings oblation."

And what land or region could this be, other than the one where in company with, and by the assistance of Soma, Indra (who like Soma, the Reader should remember, was born in Aryavarta, vide ante pp. 41-42 ) had made the waters of the renowned Seven Rivers of Aryavarta flow for the sake of our Progenitor Manu (Rig-Veda IV, 28.1), after slaying the Vritra-Serpent that lay concealed on the Indus . IL 11. 9), and opening the channels that were as though altogether shut (Rig-Veda IV, 28.1).

Besides, we next find that like Indra, the Sarasvati Too, the most sacred river of Aryavarta (vide ante pp. 35, 38), had killed the Vritra-Serpent that was born and destroyed also in the region of the Indus. For, she seems to have obtained even the epithet [Sanskrit word omitted[ on that very account, and had made the waters flow for the man (Rig-Veda VI, 61.3). Nay, she had even procured for and given land to him (Rig-Veda VI, 61.3), and had made us (the sacrifice-loving Aryans) spread ourselves beyond all foes and beyond the regions of her other sisters (Rig-Veda VI, 61.9), viz., the renowned Seven Sisters Rivers of Aryavarta (Rig-Veda VI, 61.10), indicating thereby that she had given opportunity and every sort of encouragement to our Primitive Aryan ancestors, and to our Rig-Vedic fore-fathers, to carry their victorious arms beyond the confines of the renowned Seven Rivers, and to extend their Colonies beyond Aryavarta, in all directions.

The cumulative evidence, therefore, obviously supports the view that it was the Land of the Seven Rivers that was the Cradle of the Primitive Aryans, our Progenitors. And, naturally enough, it was for this reason that even Professor Spiegel in his Introduction to Avesta, Vol. II, pt. CX, seems to have been inclined to entertain the view that "An origin in that locality (viz. the country bordering on the Indus) might, with most probability, be ascribed to the legend of Vritrahan, as India is designated, as the slayer of Vritra, who withholds the clouds and the necessary rains."

Now, our progenitors were certainly a very gifted race on the surface of the Earth; while our Rig-Vedic ancestors, having been their direct descendants, had inherited all the best traits of character and their finest qualities, had welcomed their hoary traditions and pure usages, and respected the sacrificial rites and religious ceremonies. They had first remained in the Land of the Seven Rivers – their Home and Cradle -- deeply engaged in their sacrifices and varied rituals, till distant climes having excited their curiosity, it kindled their thirst for fame, and induced them to spread the Aryan civilization beyond the Land of the Seven Rivers in all directions, to extend their Colonies everywhere, and to carry their victorious arms all over the globe. Indra, accordingly appears, in right earnest, to have been supplicated as under, in the following verse:

    (Rig-Veda X, 131.1)

    "Drive all our enemies away, Indra, the western, mighty Conqueror, and the eastern.

    Hero, drive off our northern foes and southern, that we in thy wide shelter may be joyful." (Griffith)

Thus, impelled by a new spirit of adventure and conquests abroad, our ancestors of yore had left their Mother-land Aryavarta and crossed the Hindu-Kusha, and after traversing the vast Asiatic Plateaux had gone even as far as the Arctic regions; where they had brought under their sway extensive tracts, which having been colonised by them, they had remained there for a considerable time, enjoying the genial climate and pleasant long days, expressing their astonishment at the wonderful sight of continuous Dawns lasting for days and months together, and also manifesting their overwhelming dread of the supposed endless nights, keeping, however, all the while, constant communication with their Mother-Country Aryavarta, till at the advent of the Great Ice Age, compelled, all of a sudden, by devastating floods of ice, affecting the higher latitudes, alike of the Old and the New-World, to return to their Original Home in Aryavarta, or settle in countries which could give them refuge. And we have irrefragable evidence in support of these facts, which, therefore, I proceed to place before the Reader presently.

It has been scientifically proved, and all Geologists have unanimously agreed, that the climate of the Arctic Region was milder [4] before the advent of the Great Ice Age or the Pleistocene Period, and that owing to the existence of genial climate there, in the Tertiary Epoch, these regions had become habitable. It was evidently then, that our older ancestors had, after leaving Aryavarta, colonised them and settled there. This has been proved by very ancient sources of evidence of the hoary past, and the Rig-Veda, the pre-eminently oldest [5] of them all, affords ample testimony in regard to the facts alleged.

For, the Rishis of the Rig-Vedic period speak of the ever-lasting Dawns, long days, long nights, and even of six monthly day and six monthly night of the year, as if they had personally observed these phenomena and witnessed the incidents as they had occurred. We, shall, therefore, examine and analyse a few of them, for arriving at the right conclusion. In the Rig-Veda (V, 79.9), the Dawn is asked not to delay or tarry long, indicating thereby a very strong desire on the part of our ancestors to see the Sun rise, coupled with a wish that the Dawn should no more linger long on the horizon.

In another place, there is a clear expression of feeling that a period of several days has elapsed between the first appearance of the Dawn on the horizon and the actual rising of the Sun which followed it (R.G. VII, 76.3). But to crown the whole, we see our Vedic Rishis calling the Dawn everlasting, and saying that "the Goddess Ushas dawned continually or perpetually in former days." (R.V. I, 113.13). And as the Dawns appeared every time they were seen, new and young again, with shining splendour and surpassing brilliancy, for days and months together continuously, the phenomenon having been new, and such as was never observed by our ancestors of old before, while they were in their Mother-land Aryavarta, it naturally created astonishment in their minds, and in wonder said, "the great divinity of the Gods is unique" (R.V. III, 55.16).

We also find indisputable evidence in the Rig-Veda of long days and nights, as one passage therein expressly says that, "the Sun extended his daily course to an unusual length (R.V. V, 54-5). In another place, there is still stronger testimony, as it clearly indicates that the Sun unyoked his car in the midst of heaven, and the Arya, (that is Indra, the friend, supporter, and the God of Gods of the Indo-Aryans), found a counter-measure for the "Dasa", the enemy of the Aryas and the creator of darkness. As the verse is very important for our purpose, I quote it here below:

    [Sloka omitted] (R.V. X, 138.3)

Griffith renders this into English as follows:

    "In the midway of heaven, the Sun unyoked his car: the Arya found a match to meet his Dasa foe."

There are also verses in the Rig-Veda which unmistakably indicate long, very long, nay too long nights, that lasted for days and months together. For, in (I, 46.6), the Ashwins seem to be requested to vouchsafe such strength to the poet and the worshipper, as may carry him through the darkness. While in (II, 27.14), the poet says, "May I obtain the wide fearless light, oh Indra! May not the long darkness come over us." And in (X, 124.1), Agni is told that he had stayed very long, nay too long in darkness. Moreover, in another place, we have an express statement in which Night is invoked "to become fordable with ease and without any difficulty" (X, 127.6).

Bridge of Glory
Arctic scene, Nicholas Roerich, c. 1920

But, more than this, we have in the Atharva Veda, a very distinct expression and clear state of mind of our older, nay Tertiary ancestors, in respect of the extreme length of night and the tiresome darkness, which they were actually afraid of, having not been accustomed to it before while in Aryavarta, as they seem to have exclaimed in great disappointment and dismay that, "its (Night's) yonder boundary is not seen" (A.V. XIX, 47.2). While, in the Taittiriya Samhita, there is a statement which clearly says, after addressing the Night, "Chitravasu! Let me safely reach thy end" (T.S. I, 5.5.4). It then explains the very incident and the cause of it tersely, as follows: "Chitravasu is (i.e. means) the night, and as it was apprehended, in the by-gone age, that the night would not come to an end, the Brahmans were afraid that it would not dawn." (T.S. I, 5.7.5).

And this reminds us of the penance or the Prayaschitta which the Gods had to perform, whenever the Sun did not rise or shine as was expected. For, the Taittiriya Samhita supplies us with the requisite evidence on the point, as it says that the Devas (Gods) had to perform the Prayaschitta on the occasion.


[1] [Sanskrit word omitted] or 'Cows' mean, in the Rig- Veda, both Light and Water, (vide R.V. I, 32.11; I, 92.1; III, 1.7; IV, 22.6). For, while in (I, 92.1) Siyana … explains, "The rain makes showers of fertilising water."

[2] The word 'Brahmana' means one who knows Brahma or the laud of the Lord; and Sayana, the great exegetist, while commenting on (R.V. I, 47.2), defines Brahma as follows: "Brahman a therefore is one who knows the land, that is Brahma or Mantra."

[3] Sayana also interprets Dasyuas Vritra. For, in commenting on (R. V. I. 33.4), he says: [sloka omitted]

[4] Dr. Dana, the American geologist says, "The mild temperature of the Arctic is further evident from the.... formation of thick strata of lime-stone (which) shows that life like that of lower latitudes not only existed there, but flourished in tropical profusion." (Manual of Geology, pp. 224-5, Ed. 1863)

[5] In regard to this, Professor Max Muller says that, "The principal charm of Vedic antiquities" is "its independent originality" (R.V. IV, p. XXX VIII, 1862), and declares that the Rig-Vedas are "The spring-heads of the thought, of the language, and of the Poetry of India; which rise from depths inaccessible to foreign tributaries, and whose earliest course we may follow step by step in the literature of the Brahmanas with greater accuracy than is the case in the early history of any other nation. (R.V. IV, p. LXXI).

He also gives emphatic expression to the thought that "The Rig-Veda is the most ancient book of the Aryan world", and "the sacred hymns of the Brahmans stand unparalleled in the literature of the whole world, and their preservation might well be called miraculous." (R.V. IV, p. LXXX)

To purchase soft-cover copies of Vedic Fathers of Geology, please contact the author's grand-grandson, Sanjiv Pavgi at or


The Sun News Editorials Features Sun Blogs Classifieds Events Recipes PodCasts

About Submit an Article Contact Us Advertise

Copyright 2005, 2016, All rights reserved.