Srila Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 1.2.2,
Part Four


Jun 13, 2011 — CANADA (SUN) — A serial exploration of Srila Prabhupada's preaching on Srimad Bhagavatam.

Following is the translation to SB 1.2.2 and beneath that, a breakdown of the statements contained therein. Under each statement, we have listed the essential points Srila Prabhupada made in his two lectures on this sloka, as paraphrased in the previous segments.

As we always note, each one of Srila Prabhupada's comments contains so much information, they could rightly be applied to more than one statement from the sloka. We are simply dividing them by the most obvious correlations in order to point out the comprehensiveness of Srila Prabhupada's instructions on a single verse.

    SB 1.2.2 Translation

    "Srila Suta Gosvami said: Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto that great sage [Sukadeva Gosvami] who can enter the hearts of all. When he went away to take up the renounced order of life [sannyasa], leaving home without undergoing reformation by the sacred thread or the ceremonies observed by the higher castes, his father, Vyasadeva, fearing separation from him, cried out, "O my son!" Indeed, only the trees, which were absorbed in the same feelings of separation, echoed in response to the begrieved father."

Srila Suta Gosvami said: Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto that great sage [Sukadeva Gosvami]

    The question raised by the sages at Naimisaranya was, "After departure of Krsna, unto whom the charge of religious principle depended?"

    Suta Gosvami is a disciple of Sukadeva Gosvami. It is the etiquette, before speaking anything, the disciple should first of all offer respect to the spiritual master.

    Offering respect to the spiritual master means to remember some of his activities. namas te sarasvate deve gaura-vani-pracarine (Prabhupada Pranama Mantra). He is preaching the message of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and he's a disciple of Sarasvati Thakura. You should pronounce it sarasvate, not sarasvati.

    Caitanya Mahaprabhu, as disciple of Isvara Puri, is preaching Krsna consciousness. Similarly, in the disciplic succession of Lord Caitanya, the Gosvamis -- Sri Rupa, Sanatana, Bhatta Raghunatha, Sri Jiva, Gopala-bhatta, Dasa Raghunatha. Vande rupa-sanatanau raghu-yugau sri-jiva-gopalakau. (Sri Sri Sad-goswamy-astaka)

    We begin from our first disciplic succession. Vande 'ham sri-guroh sri-yuta-pada-kamalam. (Mangalacarana)"I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my guru, spiritual master." And then, his guru, his guru, his guru, they're all Vaisnavas.

    Then we offer respect to Sri Rupa Gosvami. Rupa Gosvami. Vande rupa-sanatanau raghu-yugau sri-jiva-gopalakau. (Sri Sri Sad-goswamy-astaka) All six Gosvamins.

    Sagraja. Agraja means elder brother. Sanatana Gosvami was the elder brother of Rupa Gosvami, and Rupa Gosvami accepted him as his spiritual master.

    Sri-rupam sagrajatam saha-gana-raghunathanvitam. (Mangalacarana)Associated by Raghunatha. There are two Raghunathas: Raghunatha dasa Gosvami and Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami. Sa-jivam, with Jiva Gosvami.

    Caitanya Mahaprabhu's status: sadvaitam savadhutam. (Mangalacarana) First of all, Advaita Gosani, then Nityananda Mahaprabhu, Prabhu.

    Mahaprabhu is applicable only to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Others, all prabhus. Ekale isvara krsna ara saba bhrtya. (Cc. Adi 5.142)Krsna, and He has got innumerable servants.

    The spiritual master who has got many prabhus to abide by his order, he is addressed as Prabhupada.

    sadvaitam savadhutam parijana-sahitam krsna-caitanya-devam. (Mangalacarana) After offering all these obeisances to Gosvamis, to guru, and Advaita, Nityananda, then you come to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

    Then Sri Radha. Not Krsna directly. Sri-radha-krsna-padan saha-gana-lalita-sri-visakhanvitams ca. (Mangalacarana) Radha-Krsna means they are always associated by the gopis, of whom Lalita-Visakha are the chief out of the asta-sakhis.

    This is the parampara system. mahajano yena gatah sa panthah. (Cc. Madhya 17.186)We have to accept the path of the authorities. Here is authority, Suta Gosvami. He is offering his respect to his spiritual master, Sukadeva Gosvami.

    You can[not] say simply "I offer my respectful obeisances to my spiritual master." No. You must describe his activities. What is the activity of spiritual master? samsara-davanala-lidha-loka. (Samsara Prayers) Otherwise, everyone will become spiritual master.

    Sukadeva Gosvami was liberated. He remained within the womb of his mother for sixteen years because he was conscious that, "As soon as I get out of the womb, I'll be immediately captured by maya. So let me become little strong."

    Prahlada Maharaja learned all about God consciousness from within the womb, as Narada Muni was teaching Prahlada's mother.

    tam sarva-bhuta-hrdayam munim anato 'smi: (SB 1.2.2) "I am offering my respectful obeisances unto the great sage, Sukadeva Gosvami, whose activities is like that. Immediately coming out of the womb of his mother he left home without being, undergoing any samskara."

    Samskara is required who is impure. We should not imitate, not that as soon as we get out of the womb of mother we can walk. No. It is special. It is special. Therefore everything is special.

    Even without taking any initiation. He was initiated by his father, Vyasadeva.

    Suta Gosvami is describing the wonderful activities of his spiritual master and offering obeisances. Tam munim anato 'smi: (SB 1.2.2) "That great sage, anato 'smi, I humbly bow down on his lotus feet."

who can enter the hearts of all.

    Lord Caitanya's message is that you go and speak everyone about Krsna and Krsna's message. This is called parampara system.

    The quality, the activity will support the bona fide spiritual master. Guna-karma-vibhagasah. (Bg 4.13)Action is that he is to deliver his disciple from the blazing fire of this material existence.

    This material world is always blazing, always a problem. Nobody can deny it. Nobody goes to set fire. But by accident, by manipulation, fire takes place. In this material world, everyone is trying to be peaceful, happy, tranquil. No. There must be fire. Therefore this material existence is called samsara-davanala-lidha-loka. (Samsara Prayers)

    This fire can be extinguished only if there is cloud upon it--if there is rain. You cannot send fire brigade. The fire of this material world can be extinguished through the exigency of spiritual master, because he has received the mercy cloud, from the ocean of mercy, Krsna, and he pours it over this samsara-davanala.

    Andha yathandhair upaniyamanah. (SB 7.5.31)The so-called rascal leaders, they are making plan, lifelong. The United Nations making plan to stop war, fighting. They cannot do it. It is not possible. You have to take mercy from Krsna.

    The demons, they don't care for Krsna. They think, "I am God. I shall do it." Na mam duskrtino mudhah prapadyante naradhamah. (Bg 7.15) Because they are naradhama, lowest of the mankind. Asuram bhavam asritah. na mam duskrtino mudhah. (Bg 7.15)

    Asuric bhava means denying the existence of God. There are two kinds of men: asura and devata. Those who are accepting the authority of the Supreme Lord are called devata. Those who are denying the existence of God... such demons are prevalent everywhere.

    The demons write, on the note, "We Trust In God," but practically does nothing. That is also another edition of demons: under the garb of believing in God, doing all nonsense.

    na mam duskrtino mudhah prapadyante naradhamah. (Bg 7.15) Human life is meant for understanding what is God, what is my relationship with Him. God is great, I am very small. The rascal says, "No, I am God." God is not so cheap.

    yasyaika-nisvasita-kalam athavalambya jivanti loma-vilaja jagad-anda-nathah. (BS 5.48) Simply by the breathing of Maha-Visnu, innumerable universes are coming and going. That is God. na mam duskrtino mudhah prapadyante naradhamah. (Bg 7.15)

    How to become devotee? adau gurvasrayam. (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu) One has to seek out a bona fide spiritual master. Just like Suta Gosvami has become disciple of a bona fide spiritual master, Sukadeva Gosvami.

    It is the business of saintly person, whoever comes to him, he would give him instruction about spiritual knowledge.

    Prahlad's mother, less intelligent woman, but Prahlada took all the instruction and became a perfect devotee.

    Prahlad's friends inquired, "My dear Prahlada, you are the son of a king and you do not go outside your palace, and we are sent here in this school, teaching. Our teacher is the same. How you have learned all these nice things?" He said, "My dear friends, these nice things I learned from Narada, the same spiritual master. The instruction was actually meant for my mother, but being woman, she has forgotten."

    striyah sudras tatha vaisyas te 'pi yanti param gatim. (Bg 9.32) By Krsna's mercy, even if she's woman. mam hi partha vyapasritya (Bg 9.32) -- "It doesn't matter whether he is woman or sudra or a vaisya. If he takes shelter of My lotus feet, according to the regulative principle, they also go back to home, back to Godhead." kim punar brahmanah punya bhakta rajarsayas tatha (Bg 9.33), what to speak of the persons who are born in brahmana family and those who are devotee.

    If you want to get relief from this temporary world and the distresses within this world, then bhajasva mam: "Just become a devotee of Me."

When he went away to take up the renounced order of life [sannyasa],

    pravrajantam means to leave home in renounced order of life. Therefore a sannyasi is called parivrajakacarya. A sannyasi is supposed to be wandering without any shelter, pravrajya.

leaving home without undergoing reformation by the sacred thread

    Sukadeva Gosvami purposefully remained within the womb of his mother for sixteen years, and as soon as he got out, immediately he left home. Immediately. Anupeta.

    According to Vedic system there is upanayana, upetam. Upa means near, and nayana means bringing. When the spiritual master brings the disciples nearer by giving him gayatri-mantra, that is called upanayana-samskara.

    Sukadeva Gosvami did not take any such samskara. He learned from his father within the womb of his mother, and as he became perfectly in knowledge, liberated soul, immediately he got out of the womb of his mother and immediately started for the forest. Naked, he was going on.

    His father became very much aggrieved: "Oh, my son is born and he's going immediately!" Son didn't care. Went away. putreti tan-mayataya taravo 'bhineduh. (Bhagavat Purana) Because the father was so aggrieved, the trees replied. There was vibration, echoes.

    Sukadeva Gosvami, he remained sixteen years within the womb of his mother. He was hearing his father within the womb. This is called paramahamsa.

    A paramahamsa does not require any reformatory process, because they are already reformed. yam pravrajantam anupetam (SB 1.2.2). An means without. Upeta means taking shelter of guru or being offered the sacred thread.

    Sukadeva did not undergo the regulative principles because he was within the womb. Without any samskara, he was going immediately, taking birth.

    dvaipayano viraha-katarah (SB 1.2.2). The father certainly was expecting the son to remain at home. But Sukadeva Gosvami was simply waiting: "When I shall be fit to immediately go out of home, I shall take my birth."

    Sukadeva Gosvami did not undergo any of these principles because he was paramahamsa, above all these things. anupetam. "The institution of varnasrama prescribed many regulative duties." dasa-vidha-samskara, ten kinds of reformatory methods. But he did not undergo.

or the ceremonies observed by the higher castes,

    The institution of varna and asrama describes many regulative duties to be observed by the father. dasa-vidha-samskara, reformatory. It is scientific, just to bring the born child to the standard of civilization.

    If a human being does like cats and dogs, how they can expect very intelligent children, advanced children? There is method, how to beget children, there is ceremony, garbhadhana-samskara, how to impregnate the wife.

    garbhadhana, it is not sex enjoyment. dharma aviruddha-kamah aham asmi (Bg 7.11). Krsna says "Sex life which is not against the principles of dharma or the varnasrama principle, that is I am." Sex life also is Krsna. This is samskara.

    Formerly, at least those on the higher status of the society, namely the brahmana, ksatriya, and vaisyas, had to observe this garbhadhana-samskara.

    Then, when the wife is pregnant, there are other samskaras. Then upanayana-samskara, vivaha-samskara. From before birth and up to the point of death, there are samskaras.

    asamskrtah kriya-hina mleccha rajanya-rupinah (SB 12.1.40). The present government men, they did not go any samskara. Formerly, the kings, they... The higher castes, never mind he is king or not, but higher caste...

    The brahmanas and ksatriyas especially, and also the vaisyas, they went the samskara, reformatory. If I have taken the samskara of brahmana, if I have accepted the sacred thread, then I must act as a brahmana. It is very practical.

    catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah (Bg 4.13). Krsna says "This division, the social division--brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra--is made by Me according to quality and work." Not simply work or simply quality. You must have the quality and work, both.

    You must be bona fide candidate to work for something. If you want to work as a brahmana, then you must possess all the bona fide qualities of a brahmana.

    yuddhe capy apalayanam (Bg 18.43). A ksatriya is never afraid of fighting. If somebody comes forward to a ksatriya, that "I want to play chess or gamble..." Gambling was allowed to the ksatriyas.

    It is by gambling all the Pandavas, they lost everything. They bet their kingdom, their wife, their everything. Then they were banished. There was a trick to make them humiliated in every respect. Aksatriya cannot refuse, if any opposing party comes to a ksatriya that "I want to fight with you," a ksatriya cannot deny. And that fighting would go up to the death, till it is decided.

    There was many fights between Jarasandha and Krsna. This time, Krsna wanted to kill only Jarasandha, not so many innocent soldiers. So Krsna, Arjuna, and Bhima went to Jarasandha, and they went in the dress of brahmana.

    There was fight with Bhima and Jarasandha. They would fight the whole day, and at night would dine and talk together, friendly. This is ksatriya spirit. In this way, for twenty-seven or twenty-eight days, the fighting was going on. Later on, Jarasandha was killed by the hint of Krsna.

    Anyone could become brahmana. Just like Jabala Upanisad. Satyakama Jabala. This Satyakama was the son of a prostitute. He admitted, his mother does not know whose son he is. So Gautama Muni accepted him as disciple because he was truthful.

    In the Kali-yuga especially, there is no Vedic system of reformatory process. It is the pancaratriki-vidhi, that anyone has got a little qualification for becoming brahmana, he is accepted by the spiritual master and he is trained up, he is initiated, just to make him a complete brahmana.

    The bona fide spiritual master is called acarya, or the acarya can become a bona fide spiritual master. Acarya means who knows the purport of the sastra, and he behaves himself according to the shastric regulative principle and teaches his disciple in that way. Acarya means whose behavior, whose activities should be followed.

    If in society the varnasrama-dharma is not there, they are not human beings. They are called animals or mlecchas, yavanas. Civilized society means he must know, he must have undergone all the regulative principles.

    "Generally, a man is born as an ordinary being, and by the purificatory processes he is born for the second time." This is called dvija, second time, by the spiritual master.

    In the beginning we do not ask anybody to become initiated or a brahmana. No. We simply invite a person to join the chanting. This is our process. We should strictly follow this. In the beginning, we should not ask that "You have to do this, you have to..."

    Everyone should be given chance because in the Kali-yuga there is no reformatory system. Everyone is born sudra and less than that, candala. They should not be neglected. The duty of Vaisnava is to reclaim these fallen souls. mam hi partha vyapasritya (Bg 9.32).

    striyo vaisyah (Bg 9.32)... Formerly, even the woman and the mercantile community and sudras, they were also considered as papa-yoni. Papa-yoni means whose brain is not very developed.

    The supreme destination, back to Godhead, back to home, is for everyone. God does not say, "Only the brahmana class of men, please come here. Others all rejected."

    "Everyone has got the potency of coming to Me, go back to home, back to Godhead." That is admitted by Krsna. Who will make them qualified to go back to Godhead? That is the Vaisnava, those who are actually very sincere servant of Krsna. It is their duty.

    One should be willing to go back to Godhead and take shelter

    In South India now, the Communists, the so-called low-class people, sudras and candalas, they are now in majority, and reject the brahmanas, who are are now hiding themselves. This is not Vedic culture.

    Prahlada Maharaja said, "My Lord, I do not wish to go back to home, back to Godhead alone. I want to take all of them who are godless or not devotee. Unless I educate them how to go back to home, I alone am not prepared to go..." This is Prahlada. This is Vaisnava. para-duhkha-duhkhi krpambudhir yah (Vilapa Kusumanjali). Vaisnava means for himself he has no problem, but he is very, very morose seeing others in distressed condition without Krsna consciousness.

    A Vaisnava has no problem. He can sit down anywhere and chant Hare Krsna. Everything will be supplied to him. yoga-ksemam vahamy aham (Bg. 9.22). But it is a Vaisnava's business to execute the will of Krsna -- mam hi partha vyapasritya (Bg 9.32).

    If everyone has got the potency to go back to home, back to Godhead, it is the duty of the Vaisnava to educate the whole world how to go back to home, back to Godhead. This is Krsna consciousness movement. This is Krsna consciousness movement.

his father, Vyasadeva, fearing separation from him, cried out, "O my son!"

    So father became very much afflicted on account of separation from the son. Vyasadeva became very much aggrieved. viraha-katara ajuhava (SB 1.2.2): "My dear son, where you are going?

Indeed, only the trees, which were absorbed in the same feelings of separation, echoed in response to the begrieved father."

    Putreti, "My dear son," tan-mayataya, being absorbed in the thought of putra. taravah abhinedus tam. There was, what is called, echo from the trees.

    These are all adjectives of the Sukadeva Gosvami. So tam, "That person, who was just followed by his father, and he did not reply, but the trees replied by echoing, so I am offering..."

Sastric Citations

As a last step in considering Srila Prabhupada's preaching on Srimad Bhagavatam 1.2.2, we will summarize the references he made to other sastric verses during his lectures, in the essential points we've covered. They include the following:


      Bg 4.13
      Bg 7.11
      Bg 7.15
      Bg 9.22
      Bg 9.32
      Bg 9.33
      Bg 18.43

    Srimad Bhagavatam:

      SB 7.5.31
      SB 12.1.40


      Adi 5.142
      Madhya 17.186

    Brahma Samhita:

      BS 5.48

    Bhagavat Purana


    Vilapa Kusumanjali of Raghunatha das Goswami

    Srila Prabhupada Pranama Mantra


    Samsara Prayers

    Sri Sri Sad-goswamy-astaka

    Out of the sastric references listed above that Srila Prabhupada made in his lectures on SB 1.2.2, there are three verses that he particularly emphasized (other than references to SB 1.2.2 itself), stating them repeatedly. They are:

      Mangalacarana Prayer

      Bhagavad-gita 9.32

      Bhagavad-gita 7.15

    Given the emphasis Srila Prabhupada put on these verses in relationship to SB 1.2.2, we present the text in full:


      vande 'ham sri-guroh sri-yuta-pada-kamalam sri-gurun vaisnavams' ca
      sri-rupam sagrajatam saha-gana-raghunathanvitam tam sa jivam
      sadvaitam savadhutam parijana-sahitam krsna-caitanya-devam
      sri-radha-krsna-padan saha-gana-lalita-sri-visakhanvitams' ca


      Vande--offer my respectful obeisances; aham--I; sri-guroh--of my initiating spiritual master or instructing spiritual master; sri-yuta-pada-kamalam--unto the opulent lotus feet; sri-gurun--unto the spiritual masters in the parampara systems beginning from Madhavendra Puri down to Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada; vaisnavan--unto all the Vaisnavas, beginning from Lord Brahma and others coming from the very start of the creation; Ca--and; sri-rupam--unto Srila Rupa Gosvami; sa-agra-jatam--with his elder brothers Sri Sanatana Gosvami; saha-gana-raghunatha-anvitam--with Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami and his associates; tam--unto him; sajivam--with Jiva Gosvami; sa- advaitam--with Advaita Acarya; sa-avadhutam--with Nityananda Prabhu; parijana-sahitam--and with Srivasa Thakura and all the other devotees; krsna-caitanya-devam--unto Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sri-radha-krsna-padan--unto the lotus feet of the all-opulent Sri Krsna and Radharani, saha-gana--with associates; lalita-sri-visakha-anvitan--accompanied by Lalita and Sri Visakha; Ca--also.


      "I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my spiritual master and of all the other preceptors on the path of devotional service. I offer my respectful obeisances unto all the Vaisnavas and unto the six Gosvamis including Srila Rupa Gosvaml, Srila Sanatana Gosvami, Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami, Jiva Gosvami, and their associates. I offer my respectful obeisances unto Sri Advaita Acarya Prabhu, Sri Nityananda Prabhu, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and all His devotees, headed by Srivasa Thakura. I then offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of Lord Krsna, Srimati Radharani, and all the gopis, headed by Lalita and Visakha."

      Bhagavad-gita As It Is 7.15

      na mam duskrtino mudhah
      prapadyante naradhamah
      asuram bhavam asritah

      na -- not; mam -- unto Me; duskrtinah -- miscreants; mudhah -- foolish; prapadyante -- surrender; nara-adhamah -- lowest among mankind; mayaya -- by the illusory energy; apahrta -- stolen; jnanah -- whose knowledge; asuram -- demonic; bhavam -- nature; asritah -- accepting.


      "Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, who are lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons do not surrender unto Me.


      It is said in Bhagavad-gita that simply by surrendering oneself unto the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality Krsna one can surmount the stringent laws of material nature. At this point a question arises: How is it that educated philosophers, scientists, businessmen, administrators and all the leaders of ordinary men do not surrender to the lotus feet of Sri Krsna, the all-powerful Personality of Godhead? Mukti, or liberation from the laws of material nature, is sought by the leaders of mankind in different ways and with great plans and perseverance for a great many years and births. But if that liberation is possible by simply surrendering unto the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then why don't these intelligent and hard-working leaders adopt this simple method?

      The Gita answers this question very frankly. Those really learned leaders of society like Brahma, Siva, Kapila, the Kumaras, Manu, Vyasa, Devala, Asita, Janaka, Prahlada, Bali, and later on Madhvacarya, Ramanujacarya, Sri Caitanya and many others -- who are faithful philosophers, politicians, educators, scientists, etc. -- surrender to the lotus feet of the Supreme Person, the all-powerful authority. Those who are not actually philosophers, scientists, educators, administrators, etc., but who pose themselves as such for material gain, do not accept the plan or path of the Supreme Lord. They have no idea of God; they simply manufacture their own worldly plans and consequently complicate the problems of material existence in their vain attempts to solve them. Because material energy (nature) is so powerful, it can resist the unauthorized plans of the atheists and baffle the knowledge of "planning commissions."

      The atheistic planmakers are described herein by the word duskrtinah, or "miscreants." Krti means one who has performed meritorious work. The atheist planmaker is sometimes very intelligent and meritorious also, because any gigantic plan, good or bad, must take intelligence to execute. But because the atheist's brain is improperly utilized in opposing the plan of the Supreme Lord, the atheistic planmaker is called duskrti. which indicates that his intelligence and efforts are misdirected.

      In the Gita it is clearly mentioned that material energy works fully under the direction of the Supreme Lord. It has no independent authority. It works as the shadow moves, in accordance with the movements of the object. But still material energy is very powerful, and the atheist, due to his godless temperament, cannot know how it works; nor can he know the plan of the Supreme Lord. Under illusion and the modes of passion and ignorance, all his plans are baffled, as in the case of Hiranyakasipu and Ravana, whose plans were smashed to dust although they were both materially learned as scientists, philosophers, administrators and educators. These duskrtinas, or miscreants, are of four different patterns, as outlined below.

      (1) The mudhas are those who are grossly foolish, like hardworking beasts of burden. They want to enjoy the fruits of their labor by themselves, and so do not want to part with them for the Supreme. The typical example of the beast of burden is the ass. This humble beast is made to work very hard by his master. The ass does not really know for whom he works so hard day and night. He remains satisfied by filling his stomach with a bundle of grass, sleeping for a while under fear of being beaten by his master, and satisfying his sex appetite at the risk of being repeatedly kicked by the opposite party. The ass sings poetry and philosophy sometimes, but this braying sound only disturbs others. This is the position of the foolish fruitive worker who does not know for whom he should work. He does not know that karma (action) is meant for yajna (sacrifice).

      Most often, those who work very hard day and night to clear the burden of self-created duties say that they have no time to hear of the immortality of the living being. To such mudhas, material gains, which are destructible, are life's all in all -- despite the fact that the mudhas enjoy only a very small fraction of the fruit of labor. Sometimes they spend sleepless days and nights for fruitive gain, and although they may have ulcers or indigestion, they are satisfied with practically no food; they are simply absorbed in working hard day and night for the benefit of illusory masters. Ignorant of their real master, the foolish workers waste their valuable time serving mammon. Unfortunately, they never surrender to the supreme master of all masters, nor do they take time to hear of Him from the proper sources. The swine who eat the night soil do not care to accept sweetmeats made of sugar and ghee. Similarly, the foolish worker will untiringly continue to hear of the sense-enjoyable tidings of the flickering mundane world, but will have very little time to hear about the eternal living force that moves the material world.

      (2) Another class of duskrti, or miscreant, is called the naradhama, or the lowest of mankind. Nara means human being, and adhama means the lowest. Out of the 8,400,000 different species of living beings, there are 400,000 human species. Out of these there are numerous lower forms of human life that are mostly uncivilized. The civilized human beings are those who have regulative principles of social, political and religious life. Those who are socially and politically developed but who have no religious principles must be considered naradhamas. Nor is religion without God religion, because the purpose of following religious principles is to know the Supreme Truth and man's relation with Him. In the Gita the Personality of Godhead clearly states that there is no authority above Him and that He is the Supreme Truth. The civilized form of human life is meant for man's reviving the lost consciousness of his eternal relation with the Supreme Truth, the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, who is all-powerful. Whoever loses this chance is classified as a naradhama. We get information from revealed scriptures that when the baby is in the mother's womb (an extremely uncomfortable situation) he prays to God for deliverance and promises to worship Him alone as soon as he gets out.

      To pray to God when he is in difficulty is a natural instinct in every living being because he is eternally related with God. But after his deliverance, the child forgets the difficulties of birth and forgets his deliverer also, being influenced by maya, the illusory energy.

      It is the duty of the guardians of children to revive the divine consciousness dormant in them. The ten processes of reformatory ceremonies, as enjoined in the Manu-smrti. which is the guide to religious principles, are meant for reviving God consciousness in the system of varnasrama. However, no process is strictly followed now in any part of the world, and therefore 99.9 percent of the population is naradhama.

      When the whole population becomes naradhama. naturally all their so-called education is made null and void by the all-powerful energy of physical nature. According to the standard of the Gita, a learned man is he who sees on equal terms the learned brahmana. the dog. the cow, the elephant and the dog-eater. That is the vision of a true devotee. Sri Nityananda Prabhu, who is the incarnation of Godhead as divine master, delivered the typical naradhamas. the brothers Jagai and Madhai, and showed how the mercy of a real devotee is bestowed upon the lowest of mankind. So the naradhama who is condemned by the Personality of Godhead can again revive his spiritual consciousness only by the mercy of a devotee.

      Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, in propagating the bhagavata-dharma, or activities of the devotees, has recommended that people submissively hear the message of the Personality of Godhead. The essence of this message is Bhagavad-gita. The lowest amongst human beings can be delivered by this submissive hearing process only, but unfortunately they even refuse to give an aural reception to these messages, and what to speak of surrendering to the will of the Supreme Lord? Naradhamas, or the lowest of mankind, will fully neglect the prime duty of the human being.

      (3) The next class of duskrti is called mayayapahrta-jnanah, or those persons whose erudite knowledge has been nullified by the influence of illusory material energy. They are mostly very learned fellows -- great philosophers, poets, literati, scientists, etc. -- but the illusory energy misguides them, and therefore they disobey the Supreme Lord.

      There are a great number of mayayapahrta-jnanah at the present moment, even amongst the scholars of the Bhagavad-gita. In the Gita, in plain and simple language, it is stated that Sri Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. There is none equal to or greater than Him. He is mentioned as the father of Brahma, the original father of all human beings. In fact, Sri Krsna is said to be not only the father of Brahma but also the father of all species of life. He is the root of the impersonal Brahman and Paramatma; the Supersoul in every entity is His plenary portion. He is the fountainhead of everything, and everyone is advised to surrender unto His lotus feet. Despite all these clear statements, the mayayapahrta-jnanah deride the personality of the Supreme Lord and consider Him merely another human being. They do not know that the blessed form of human life is designed after the eternal and transcendental feature of the Supreme Lord.

      All the unauthorized interpretations of the Gita by the class of mayayapahrta-jnanah, outside the purview of the parampara system, are so many stumbling blocks on the path of spiritual understanding. The deluded interpreters do not surrender unto the lotus feet of Sri Krsna, nor do they teach others to follow this principle.

      (4) The last class of duskrti is called asuram bhavam asritah, or those of demonic principles. This class is openly atheistic. Some of them argue that the Supreme Lord can never descend upon this material world, but they are unable to give any tangible reasons as to why not. There are others who make Him subordinate to the impersonal feature, although the opposite is declared in the Gita. Envious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the atheist will present a number of illicit incarnations manufactured in the factory of his brain. Such persons, whose very principle of life is to decry the Personality of Godhead, cannot surrender unto the lotus feet of Sri Krsna.

      Sri Yamunacarya Albandaru of South India said, "O my Lord! You are unknowable to persons involved with atheistic principles, despite Your uncommon qualities, features and activities, despite Your personality's being confirmed by all the revealed scriptures in the quality of goodness, and despite Your being acknowledged by the famous authorities renowned for their depth of knowledge in the transcendental science and situated in the godly qualities."

      Therefore, (1) grossly foolish persons, (2) the lowest of mankind, (3) the deluded speculators, and (4) the professed atheists, as above mentioned, never surrender unto the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead in spite of all scriptural and authoritative advice."

      Bhagavad-gita As It Is 9.32

      mam hi partha vyapasritya
      ye 'pi syuh papa-yonayah
      striyo vaisyas tatha sudras
      te 'pi yanti param gatim

      mam -- of Me; hi -- certainly; partha -- O son of Prtha; vyapasritya -- particularly taking shelter; ye -- those who; api -- also; syuh -- are; papa-yonayah -- born of a lower family; striyah -- women; vaisyah -- mercantile people; tatha -- also; sudrah -- lower-class men; te api -- even they; yanti -- go; param -- to the supreme; gatim -- destination.


      "O son of Prtha, those who take shelter in Me, though they be of lower birth -- women, vaisyas [merchants] and sudras [workers] -- can attain the supreme destination.


      It is clearly declared here by the Supreme Lord that in devotional service there is no distinction between the lower and higher classes of people. In the material conception of life there are such divisions, but for a person engaged in transcendental devotional service to the Lord there are not. Everyone is eligible for the supreme destination. In the Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.4.18) it is stated that even the lowest, who are called candalas (dog-eaters), can be purified by association with a pure devotee. Therefore devotional service and the guidance of a pure devotee are so strong that there is no discrimination between the lower and higher classes of men; anyone can take to it. The most simple man taking shelter of the pure devotee can be purified by proper guidance. According to the different modes of material nature, men are classified in the mode of goodness (brahmanas), the mode of passion (ksatriyas, or administrators), the mixed modes of passion and ignorance (vaisyas, or merchants), and the mode of ignorance (sudras, or workers). Those lower than them are called candalas, and they are born in sinful families. Generally, the association of those born in sinful families is not accepted by the higher classes. But the process of devotional service is so strong that the pure devotee of the Supreme Lord can enable people of all the lower classes to attain the highest perfection of life. This is possible only when one takes shelter of Krsna. As indicated here by the word vyapasritya, one has to take shelter completely of Krsna. Then one can become much greater than great jnanis and yogis."

      Bhaktivedanta Book Trust


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