Vymanika Shastra, Part Five
BY: SUN STAFF
May 03, 2011 CANADA (SUN) The Vedic science of flight – a study in several parts.
Today, for the sake of brevity, we are presenting two chapters of Vymanika Sastra in full, and only briefly summarizing another five chapters that are either highly technical or somewhat redundant. Because we're truncating portions of the manuscript, the two full chapters being presented are not in sequence, although they both address materials and metallurgy.
CHAPTER 10 -- ON-BOARD SYSTEMS / FEATURES enumerates a listing of 31 parts of the vimanas, being a derivative or corollary of the '32 Secrets of Vimana' presented in an earlier segment.
CHAPTER 11 –CLOTHING FOR PILOTS describes special clothing worn by vimana aviators. Ayurveda appears to play a significant part in guiding this textile technology. Raw materials quoted for manufacture of the special fabrics include silk, cotton, moss, hair, mica and leather.
CHAPTER 12 – FOOD FOR PILOTS covers dietary prescriptions for flying personnel. Like the section above on occupational clothing, the subject is treated on a scientific basis.
CHAPTER 13 – VIEWS OF A COMBAT PILOT discusses the views of an aviator, being mostly a summarization of points presented earlier, as dealt with by the vimana pilots themselves.
CHAPTER 17 – YANTRADHI KARANAM covers highly technical in-flight packages and underlying technologies behind the manufacture and operation of vimanas.
CHAPTER – 14
METALS FOR VIMANAS -- LOHADHIKARANAM
Out of many topics of Vymanika Shastra, the one picked up by most Indian researchers is on metals and materials. In particular, metals conclusively categorized for use on vimana have incited curiosity.
Three ancient scientists quoted are Shownaka, Manibhadra (in his Manibhadra Kaarika) and Saamba. All three sages commonly point to three kinds of root metals for aviation applications - somaka, soundaalika, and mourthwika. Apart from lightness, metallic property targeted is heat absorbing/resistance.
The root metals (in ore form) are described to be available at identified layers of earth’s crust out of about three thousand metal bearing layers. Different layers contain different metal ores in varying grades.
Loha Kalpa and Lohatantra are described as the master texts on metallurgy.
To obtain different alloys for manufacture of varieties of vimanas, sixteen alloys have been stated to be processed from the three core metals by mixing in different proportions. They are given in the table:
The ancient scientists have propounded that formation of metallic ores is attributed to forces of:
Gravity of the centre of earth
Gravity of global earth
Sun’s gravitational force
Moon’s gravitational force
Interplanetary gravitational forces in the universe
Each in proportion 3, 8, 11, 5, 2, 6, 4, 9 and combined with heat and moisture inside the crest.
The work ponders a great deal over various forms of energies (forces) that lead to the synthesis of each of the three types of core metals. For the benefit of the readers, a summary is given in table form.
Core metal or Beeja loha with exponent sage and governing text.
Alloys under each category
Souma (sage Atri) in Naamaartha kalpa.
Related-works—Paribhaasha chandrika--Vishwambhara kaarika
Souma, Sowmyaka, Soundaasya, Soma Panchaanana, Praanana, Shankha, Kapila.
Viranchi, Souryapa, Shanku, Ushna, Soorana, Shinjika, Kanku, Ranjika, Soundeera, Mughdha, Ghundhaaraka
Amuka, Dvyaamuka, Kanka, Tryamuka, Svetaambara, Mridambhapa, Baalagarbha, Kuvarchaa, Kantaka, Kshvinka, Laghvika.
Knowledge of metals in ancient India was not confined just to basic metals such as Iron, Copper etc. Development of metallurgical technology apparently scales up to aviation requirements. The enormity of basic research in the entire process can be visualized.
Knowledge of factors causing formation of ores in earth’s crust must have existed. How far this theory matches with geo-physical phenomenon of modern science can be a separate study.
Geological studies and mining of ores apparently existed.
Discussion on interplanetary forces influencing earth’s crust stated here are indicative of comprehensive and deep knowledge that existed in ancient India.
Considering the number of alloys mentioned, very fine property-specific developments must have been aimed at in metallurgical processes.
A brief chapter thereafter deals with the purification (more appropriately, refining) process of metals and alloys. The processes are slightly different for each class of metals. Guiding text is Samskara Darpana.
Several types of acids, decoctions, charcoal, salt and native materials of Ayurvedic origin feature in these processes. Modern metallurgists would find it strange that a variety of organic substances participate in the process of refining.
Deliberating on production of ooshmapa metals (heat resistant) under the category of Souma, Soundala and Mourtwika, mixing of each alloy under each variety and their proportion of mix has a special connotation. Each alloy is given a number under the three core metals against which proportions are prescribed for the mix to obtain the desired quality of alloy. Deeper study should be very gainful.
Lallacharya’s classification of metals is distinct in it’s own way and it is source-related, as follows:
Kritaka or artificial
Evolved from vermin
Grown from salt
Hair born and egg born
Crucibles – Mooshadhikaranam:
Ancient metallurgists seem to have developed a wide variety of crucibles to suit each process. Guiding text is Moosha Kalpa. The process of manufacture of antarmukha (inward looking) crucible stated to be prescribed for preparing metals for vimana is given in detail.
Fire place (furnace) or kunda – vyaasaatikaadhikaranam.
Kunda Kalpa, the guiding text stipulates the use of koorma or tortoise shaped furnace for melting aircraft alloys. Kunda Nirnaya goes further to outline the constructional aspect of these furnaces.
Bellows - Bhastrikaadhikarana:
Guiding text—Bhastrika Nibandhana. For the purpose here, a specific type of Bellows to match with Tortoise shaped furnace is prescribed. The constructional details include specific leather for the body of the bellows and a variety of organic and inorganic materials.
Specific-to-type crucibles, furnaces, bellows selected from amongst a wide-ranging types and numbers hint at very fine development of metallurgical processes.
CHAPTER – 18
ADDITIONAL METALS, ALLOYS AND MATERIALS:
Metal / Materials and reference
Process of preparation
1. Darpana for Kiranaakarshana yantra or solar ray capturing mirror – in pariveshakriyaa yantra
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in frog-shaped crucible - placed in frog shaped furnace - use two winged bellows and melt up to 300° - pour the molten liquid into mould.
2. Prathibhimba-Arka-Kiranakarshana Naala.
For attracting reflections of solar rays.
Text: Nallika nirnaya
Prescribed ingredient in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in Samavargika crucible - placed in Samavargika furnace - using Suragha bellow melt up to 315° - pour into receptacle - darpana suitable for attracting reflected solar rays is obtained.
3. Sunda-mud made glass in puspini-yantra.
Text: Parthiva paka kalpa
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in crucibles - heat in Tortoise shaped furnace for 32 times at 100° using 2 faced bellows - pour into cooling yantra to get the mirror.
4. Abhra-mrid Darpana in Padma Chakra Mukha yantra.
Text: Yantra sarvasva and
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in crucible - placed in Varrathakunda furnace - boiled to 200° and poured into mould.
5. Cold producing cristals in pushpini --yantra.
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed In Mritkundala moosha - heated in Kula kundika furnace - using Trayambaka bellows up to 300° - pour the boiled liquid into crystal forming yantra to get pure hard and intensely cold crystal
6. Vaataayanee metal or window metal in Pinjoola Adarsha Yantra.
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in crucible and heated in furnace up to 100° - pour and cool.
7. Suranjitaadarsha Darpana in Guhagarbha Yantra.
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in beaked crucible - placed in Varaaha furnace - using tortoise shaped bellows - heat up to 100° and pour into mould.
8. Anjishta Tree (Madder root) in Guhagarbha yantra.
Text: Aagatatwa Lahari
The wood of the tree best suited for capturing reflections
9. Dravapaatra or Acid vessel in
Text: Darpana prakarana.
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in lotus shaped crucible - heated in lotus shaped furnace using five mouthed bellows to 323° - pour into cooling yantra to get Sheeta ranjikadarsha or cold-receptacle glass.
10. Panchadhara Loha in Guhagarbha-yantra.
To make metal pivots in yantras. Strong and heavy.
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in Mrugendra Moosha crucible placed in furnace - using beaked bellows heat up to 300° - pour into the mould to get a fine alloy metals
|11. Paaragrandhika Drava.
An acid for insertion of crystal Chumbakamani in Guhagarbha Yantra
Ingredients to be heated in big bellied earthen pot to yield drava shining like gold. |
|12. Chumbakamani -- one of the finest crystals to capture reflections—guhagarbha yantra.
Text: Manipradeepika. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, placed in Karpalaa crucible - baked in furnace using owl nosed bellows up to 100° yields Chumbakamani. |
|13. Image producing Niryaasa or
Roopakarsha Niryaasa or Special Varnish - , a pigment for coating Ascreen-cloth in Guhagarbha yantra.
Text: Niryasa Kalpa ||Detailed process given in the text. |
|14. Patadarpana in Guhagarbha yantra.
Text: Darpanaprakarana. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - heated in a vessel up to 100° - hold on a flat surface to obtain a sheet like cloth. |
|15. Tamogarbha loha in Tamogarbha yantra.
Against poisonous fumes and dangerours rays from enemy.
Light and strong. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in fish shaped crucible - placed in crow shaped furnace - heat up to 100° and pour into cooling receptacle. It will yield fine darkness capturing metal |
|16. Vaatadhaarana Loha in
Nice, soft, strong, cool, light metal. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in Meayooka crucible - placed in Jamboomukha furnace - using Kakamukha bellows - heat up to 102° - cast in the yantra. |
|17. Rowdree darpana in Rowdree darpana yantra.
Text: Darpanaprakarana. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in Padmasya crucible - placed in Viswodara furnace - heat up to 200° - pour molten liquid into a mould. |
|18. Vaatastambana metal in
Text: Lohatatvaprakashika. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in Matsya shaped crucible - placed in Maghima furnace - using Vijrimbhana bellows - pour into the mould. |
|19. Vidyut Darpana metal in
For protection against lightning from clouds, Yantrasarvasva.
Text: Darpanaprakarana ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed - filled in padmasya crucible - placed in vishwodhara furnace - using five mouthed bellows - heated to 500° results in the alloy. |
|20. Badhira Loha or deaf proof metal in Shabdha Kendra Mukha yantra.
Text: As per Loha Tantra. ||Ingredients in equal parts - cleand and purified filled in Triyuti Crucible, placed in furnace heated - cast in receptacles produces metal cold, dark, sound proof, powerful, able to control bleeding and draw out particles from wounds of soldiers. |
|21. Anti-Lightning (lightning proof) glasses in Vidyudwadashaka yantra.
Text: Darpanaprakarana. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions, purified and mixed, filled in crucibles - placed in padmakara furnace - using simhasya bellows - heated 300° and poured into reseptacles. |
|22. Dambola Loha or Thunderbolt Metal in Vidyutdwadashaka yantra.
Text: Lohatatwaprakarana. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions, purified and mixed, filled in Mandooka or Frog shaped crucibles - placed in five faced furnace - using panchamukha bellows - heated to 500° will yield this alloy. |
|23. Mahorna Acid – Dravakaprakarana. ||Purified ingredients in equal parts and boiled will yield this acid. |
|24. Vrishala Metal: in pranakundalini yantra. ||Process details not given. |
|25. Shytyagrahaka Loha: in
Cold absorbing metal.
Text: Loha Tantra. ||Prescribed ingredients in equal parts purified and mixed in shundaalaka crucible - placed in Chanchoomukha furnace - using Panchanana bellows will yield a fine cold absorbing alloy. |
|26. Sheetaghna Glass: Cold-proof Glass: in Shaktyudgama yantra.
Text: Darpanaprakarana. ||Prescribed ingredients in equal parts filled in Simhika Crucible - placing Padmakara furnace - using Shoorpodara bellows - heat up to 300° - pour into mould and cool. |
|27. Araara Alloy: in Vakraprasaarana yantra.
A copper alloy, goldish colour, Light and hard. ||Purified and boiled at 100°.|
|28. Shaktigarbha Metal: in
Shaktipanjara keela of
Shaktipanjara yantra. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in crucibles - placed in Aatapaa furnace - heating to 100° - Charged with electric current results in this alloy. |
|29. Vishakanta Metal: in
Shiraahkeelaka yantra. ||Process details not given. |
|30. Katana Drava: in Shabdhakarshana
yantra. ||Process details not given. |
|31. Kwaanaadara Glass: in
Shabdhaakarshana yantra. ||Process details not given. |
|32. Vajeemukha Metal: in
Shabdhaakarshana yantra. ||Process details not given. |
|33. Byndala Metal: in
A fine light, blue alloy.
Text: Lohasarvaswa. ||Ingredients in equal parts, powdered, purified filled in Shashamoosha crucible and heated in Mandooka furnace - using five mouthed bellows to 200° will yield a metal. |
|34. Rutana Acid: in Shabdhakarshana yantra.
Text: Moolikarkaprakashita. ||Ingredients boiled in vessels to 108° yield fine yellow dravaka. |
|35. Ghantarava Metal: in
A fine, light, scarlet colour metal, which records all sounds.
Text: Lohatantra. ||Ingredients powdered and purified filled Shukti crucible wrapped all round with earth - placed in Alaabu shaped furnace - boiled to 500° - poured into the mould. |
|36. Pingala Darpana: in Dishampatti yantra. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed filled in Matsya crucible - placed in Naalika furnace - using Gowmukhi bellows - boiled up to 99° and poured into the mould. |
|37. Somabhra: in Pattikaabrata yantra.
A particular variety of mica, sky colour, fine, strong, absorbent, cure for eye diseases. It has diamond content and cool to touch. ||Process details not given except purification process. |
|38. Ravichumbakamani ||Process details not given. |
|39. Special mirror for attracting solar heat: in Suryashaktyaprakaashana Yantra. A fine, light, strong. Golden colour solar heat collecting glass.
||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed filled in Antarmukha crucible - placed in Shuka mukha furnace and boiled - poured in Antarmukhi yantra and churn thoroughly. |
|40. Shyvaala or Moss acid,
Shrini acid, Chaaya mukha crystal, Jyotsna acid.:
Suryashaktapakarshana yantra. ||Process details not given. |
|41. Kshowndeera Metal: in
Text: Loha tantra. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed filled in crucible - placed in Chhatreemukha furnace using Surashi bellows heat up to 100° - pour into mould. |
|42. Vakratunda Metal: in Sthambhana Yantra.
Text: Kriyasaara. ||Process details not given. |
|43. Naaga Metal, Prajwalakamani, Mahoshmikamani, Manjishta acid, Jwalinimukhimani.: in
Vyswamaara yantra. ||Process details not there. |
|44. Raaja Loha or King of metal:
In the manufacture of Kritaka type of Vimanas. This alloy, a heat resistant metal of Ooshmapaa category is specially prescribed. This is the fourth in the series of alloys of Ooshmapaa category having sixteen types. Use of Raaja-Loha in Rukma vimana is mentioned, Rukma means gold.
Yaana-bindu stipulate that only after obtaining gold colour on Raja-loha by due process, it can be used for covering the vimana.
Text: Yantrasarvasva. ||Mix Soma, Soundala and Mourtwika metals in the ratio of 3:8:2. Add Borax to be filled in crucible and melted in furnace up to 272° and churned.
Process of imparting gold colour on Raja-loha:
Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed filled in smelter and boiled to draw the liquid through two outlets and filled in the crucibles and again boiled up to 800° and transferred to the cooler. |
|45. Haatakaasya Metal: in the construction of Mast in Shakuna vimana.
Prescribed by Lallacharya.
Lohatantra. ||Ingredients: Suvarchala or Natron (8), Laghu Kshwinka or light Zinc (16), Laghu Bambhari (6), Copper (100) filled in crucible - placed in Yasastika furnace and use Mahormi bellows - heat up to 507°.|
|46. Dhoomagarbha alloy: in
Dhoomodgama yantra of Sundara vimana. ||Ingredients: Himasamvardhaka, Soma and Sundala in proportions 32:25:38 filled in five crucibles - placed in Chakramukha furnace - use Ajaamukha bellows - heat up to 712° - properly churned. |
|47. Special cloth for making
Sundaleeka or fabric nozzle for obtaining crust through exhausting of energy as described in Sundara vimana.
This fabric is a strong, soft, cool, heat-proof, tear resistant, ash coloured cloth. ||Ingredients filled in a vessel - prepare another mixture in equal parts of Naga metal, Granthi metal, Vajra, Vynateya, Bambharika, Kanduru, Kudapa and Kundalotpala - boiled to 92° - pour the molten liquid into milk cloth machine and churned.
Resultant product to be cooled and put through levelling machine to obtain the special cloth. |
|48. Chapalagrahaka Metal: in electrical energy storing device in Sundara Vimana.
Specified for the central vessels of storage apparatus.
Text: Lohatantra. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in Uraana crucible - placed in Kundodhara furnace - use three faced bellows and melt up to 427° - pour into receptacle and cool. |
|49. Shaktiskanda Metal: in electricity Storage vessel. ||Preparation details not given. |
|50. Ghrinyakarshan Glass:
Or Solar heat absorbing mirror in
Preceptor: Lallacharya. ||Preparation details not given. |
|51. Vaatamitra Metal: in
Vaataprasarana yantra in Sundara vimana.
Text: Lohatantra. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in Sarpasya crucible - placed in Chakramukha furnace - using Vaaranaasya bellows heat up to 216°.|
|52. Kundodhara Metal: in construction of Chaturmukha owshnasya yantra of Sundara viamana.
A blue, fine, light alloy capable of withstanding heat up to 2000 d and glass proof against canons, Shatagni and Sahastragni. ||Ingredients: Soma, Kanchuka and Soundala in proportions 30:45:20 cleaned and filled in Padma crucible - heated in Chatraamukha furnace - using Vasuki bellows and heated to 716° and poured for cooling. |
|53. Mica: for manufacture of pillars in Sundara vimana. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in Kurma crucible - placed in Padma furnace - using bellows heat up to 800° - pour into cooler results in Mica alloy, very attractive for pillars. |
|54. Trinetra-loha: in Tripura vimana.
Explained by Shakatayana
Shines like peacock feather, fire proof, unbreakable, weight less.
Impregnable by water, fire, air and heat, and indestructible. ||Three ingredients: Jyothismati-loha (10), Kantha-mitra (8), Vajra-mukha-loha (16) to be filled in crucibles - add Tankana or Borax (5), Trymika (7), Shrapanikaa (11), Mandalika (5), Ruchaka or Natron (3), Mercury (3), filled in crucible - placed in Padma-mukha furnace and heated to 631° using Trimukhi bellows - resulting in liquid poured into cooler. |
|55. Pure Mica:
Fifty different varieties classified as follows: |
White Mica - 16 types
Red Mica -12 types
Yellow Mica - 7 types
Black Mica -15 types
Out of the above Pundareeka from the first type, Rohineeka from the second, Panchadhara from the third, and Drownika from the fourth type to be used for vimana.
|Detailed purification process as per Samskararatnaakara, Detail process of preparation is also given in the main text. |
|56. Vaaruna Metal: in Tripura
Vimana—a light, smoke coloured, impregnable alloy. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in crucibl - placed in Padma-mukha furnace - use five faced bellows and heat up to 700° - pour into yantra and churn - further purification of metal as per Kriyaasara. |
|57. Krowncha Metal: in rain
protection yantra, under Tripura vimana.
Light, strong, honey coloured, rain-water and heat impregnated.
|Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in crucibles and placed in Padma furnace - heated up to 512° using three face bellows - pour into churning yantra and cooled. |
|58. Aathapaashaana-Loha: in
Surgaathapopasamhara yantra in Tripura vimana.
Light, orange colour, heat proof, and unbreakable. ||Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in crucibles - placed in Nallika furnace - using Mooshakasya bellow heat up to 725 ° churn the liquid and pour into the cooler.
Further purification as per Kriyasara. |
|59. Somasa-loha: for housing in electric generator in third floor of Tripura vimana.
A fine, light, suitable for use in electrical machinery.
|Prescribed ingredients in specified proportions purified and mixed, filled in crucible (sarpamukha) - placed in Naaga furnace - using Shashamukha bellows and heat up to 350° - churn the molten metal in mixer and pour the metal. |
Special observations / remarks on Additional material, metals, covered above
Metals, Alloys, Mirrors, Manis covered in the text under respective chapters are much less as compared to those covered under Yantraadhikaranam and vimanas. Detailed processes of manufacture of metals and alloys include specific-to-type crucibles, furnaces and bellows, hinting at the vastness of prevalent metallurgical sciences.
Melting temperatures are generally from 99° to 1000° ancient scale, the only exception being in Kundodhara metal, that has melting temperature 2000°. Temperatures specified such as 99°, 712°, 353 °, indicate that fine regulation of temperature control had been achieved and each alloy had a distinct melting temperature. As a corollary, pyrometry, that too with high degree of accuracy and precession seems to have existed.
Following today's segment, we'll take a break to resume our other ongoing serial features, bringing the Vymanika Sastra series to conclusion a few weeks from now.
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