Middle Kingdoms of India, Part 18


Aror Sukkur Sindh

Apr 24, 2015 — CANADA (SUN) — A serial presentation of India's great history, religious movements and temple architecture.

Today we complete our summary of the early tribes who entered northwestern India during the Middle Kingdom period, then we will move on to the northeast. The invading empires prevalent in the northeast will no doubt be more familiar, not only because the invasions crossed over some of our most important holy dhams, but also because they were, respectively, more current on the timeline.

The Rais

"The Rai Dynasty of Sindh were patrons of Buddhism even though they also established a huge temple of Shiva in present-day Sukkur, derived from original Shankar, close to their capital in Alor.[18] This is consistent with the historical accounts from the times of Emperor Ashoka and Harsha. Indian monarchs never sponsored a state religion and usually patronized more than one faith.

Alor, also known as Aror or Arorkot is today known as the city of Rohri in Pakistan. It is the ancestral town of the Aroracaste. According to the Bhavishya Purana, while Lord Parasurama was attacking the destroying the ranks of the kshatriyas, he met one who refused to oppose the Brahmins. This gained Parshuram's Parasurama, so He asked this Kshatriya to settle in Sindh, in Arorkot. This kshatriya's descendants were named after the place.

Aror, the ancient capital of Sindh, was originally ruled by the Ror Dynasty, followed by Rai Dynasty, and later the Brahman Dynasty. Modern Rohri is now situated close to Sukkur, Sindh. In 962 A.D. it was hit by a massive earthquake that changed the course of the Indus River.

The influence of the Rai empire extended from Kashmir and Kannauj in the east, Makran and Debal (Karachi) in the west, Surat in the south, and Kandahar, Sistan, Suleyman, Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north.

The Gandharan Kambojas

The Gandhara Satrapy became an independent kingdom based from Afghanistan. It competed for domination in the region with the Tang dynasty, Tibet, the Islamic Caliphate and theTurkic tribes.

The Shahis

The Shah[19] or Sahi,[20] also called Shahiya [21][22] dynasties ruled portions of the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) from the decline of the Kushan Empire, from the 3rd Century A.D. to the early 9th Century.[22] The kingdom was known as Kabul-shahan or Ratbel-shahan from (565–670 A.D.), when the capitals were located in Kapisa and Kabul, and later in Udabhandapura (also known as Hund) [23].

In ancient times "Shahi" appear to have been quite a popular royal title in Afghanistan and the northwestern areas of the Indian subcontinent. It was used by the Achaemenids[24], Sakas[25], Kushanas[26], Hunas[27], Bactrians[28], and by the rulers of Kapisa/Kabul[29] and Gilgit.[30]

In Persian form, the title appears as Kshathiya, Kshathiyanam, Shao of the Kushanas and the Ssaha of Mihirakula (Huna chief). [31] The Kushanas are said to have adopted the title Shah-in-shahi ("Shaonano shao") in imitation of Achaemenid practice.[32] The Shahis of Kabul/Gandhara are generally split up into two eras—the Buddhist-Shahis and the Hindu-Shahis. The change-over is thought to have occurred sometime around 870 A.D.


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