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"Then there are the philosophers headed by Gautama and Kanada. They have very minutely studied the cause and effect of the material elements and have ultimately come to the conclusion that atomic combination is the original cause of creation. Present materialistic scientists also follow in the footsteps of Gautama and Kanada, who propounded this theory of Paramanuvada. This theory, however, cannot be supported because the original cause of everything is not inert atoms. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita and Srimad-Bhagavatam as well as in the Vedas, wherein it is stated eko narayana asit, Only Narayana existed before the creation. The Srimad-Bhagavatam and Vedanta-sutra also say that the original cause is sentient and both indirectly and directly cognizant of everything within this creation. In the Bhagavad-gita Krsna says, aham sarvasya prabhavah: "I am the original cause of everything," and mattah sarvam pravartate: "From Me everything comes into existence." Therefore, atoms may form the basic combinations of material existence, but these atoms are generated from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus the philosophy of Gautama and Kanada cannot be supported."

Krsna Book, Chapter 87

Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. HDG A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Srila Prabhupada.